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'12 chem exam

more vocab

surfactant wetting agent that breaks surface tension
solute is being dissolved
solvent is doing the dissolving
saturated contains the max. amount of solute that can be dissolved
molarity number of moles per solute/ liters of solution
solubility the max amount of a solute that can be dissolved at a certain temp.
supercooled cooled beyond the point when something would normally freeze
molality number of moles of solute dissolved per kg of solute
colligative properties differences btwn the properties of pure solvents and their solutions 1. vapor pt lowering 2. boiling pt elevation 3. freezing pt depression
effective molality M of NaCl x 2= eff.molality
activation energy the energy it takes to start a reaction
endothermic heat is gained by a system (+H)
exothermic heat is lost by a system (-H)
enthalpy internal warmth (H) the larger H is, the less stable, if H is +, heat is given off (exothermic) if H is -, heat is absorbed (endothermic), usually spontaneous.
quanta the smallest quantity of radiant energy
quantum model the probability of where you'd find an electron in an orbit around an atom
emission spectrum the characteristic set of frequencies that are given off as an element is heated
frequency # of wavepeaks in some time (v) hertz
wavelength distance btwn peaks (λ)
photon unit of radiant energy
Know the electromagnetic spectrum ---> larger frequency, smaller wavelength 1.radio/tv 2.microwave 3.infrared 4.visible light(roygbiv) 5.UV 6. x-ray 7.gamma
know the aufbau diagram and principle electrons enter orbitals of lowest energy first
electron configuration the way electrons are arranged around an atom.
energy level n- energy level s(1 orbital), p(3 orb.), d(5 orb.), f(7 orb.)
orbital electron cloud where there's a high chance of finding an electron, max 2 electrons in each.
ionization energy the min. energy an electron needs to leave the atom it is in.
electronegativity the tendency of an atom to draw electrons to itself in a bond or compound.
electron affinity the energy needed to add an electron to an atom.
VSEPR theory determines the shape of an atom ex: trigonal planar, bent, pyramidal, linear
resonance when a molecule fluctuates btwn 2 valid electron structures
valence electron electrons that are in the highest occupied energy lvl for an atom
adiabatic cooling when you lower the pressure, it lowers the temp.
sublimation change directly from solid to gas
barometer measures atmospheric pressure
molecular solids soft/low melting point
ionic solids high melting point, brittle
temperature average kinetic energy of particles
heat of fusion the heat in calories required to convert 1g of a material from solid to liquid state
entropy S, the amount of disorder in a system
nonspontaneous reaction if +G always if +H,-S ex:photosynthesis
spontaneous reaction if -G always if -H, +S ex: burning paper
what will change the rate of a reaction? temperature, concentration, particle size.
superheat when a liquid is heated to a temperature higher than its boiling point, without boiling.
condensation from gas to liquid, opposite of vaporization
solution a homogeneous mixture composed of only one phase (made of solute and solvent)
heat of vaporization from liquid to gas
allotropes different solid forms of the same element
vapor pressure the measure of how quickly a chemical liquid will evaporate.
supersaturated a solution that contains more of the dissolved material than could be dissolved by the solvent under the solubility amount.
heat the energy an object has because of the motion of its particles
calorie the energy needed to raise the temp. of 1 gram of water by 1°C.
freezing point depression equation ΔT = K x eff.molality
coordinate covalent bond when the 2 electrons in the bond come from 1 atom
double covalent bond sharing of 2 pairs of electrons btwn 2 atoms
polar covalent bond electrons are shared unevenly
non polar covalent bond electrons are shared evenly
buffer solution resists changes in pH when small quantities of an acid or an alkali are added to it.
Created by: paulina.knoblock