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Chemistry Exam! :/

Second semester exam vocab

Kinetic-molecular theory Based in the idea that particles of matter are always in motion
Ideal gas A hypothetical gas that perfectly fits all the assumptions of the kinetic-molecular theory.
Elastic collision One in which there is no net loss of total kinetic energy
Diffusion Spontaneous mixing of the particles of two substances caused by their random motion
Effusion A process by which gas particles pass through a tiny opening
Real gas A gas that does not behave completely according to the assumptions of the kinetic-molecular theory
Fluid A substance that can flow and therefore take the shape of it's container
Surface tension A force that tends to pull adjacent parts of a liquids surface together, thereby decreasing surface tension
Capillary action The attraction of the surface of a liquid to the surface of a solid
Vaporization The process by which a liquid or solid changes to a gas
Evaporation The process by which particles escape from the surface of a non boiling liquid and enter the gas state
Freezing The physical change of a liquid to a solid by removal of energy as heat
Crystalline solids They consist of crystals
Crystal A substance in which the particles are arranged in an orderly, geometric, repeating pattern
Amorphous solid One in which the particles are arranged randomly
Melting The physical change of a solid to a liquid by the addition of energy as heat
Melting point The temperature at which a solid becomes a liquid
Supercooled liquids Substances that retain certain liquid properties even at temperatures at which they appear to be solid
Crystal structure The total three dimensional arrangement of particles of a crystal
Unit cell The smallest portion of a crystal lattice that shows the 3D pattern of the entire lattice
Phase Any part of a system that has uniform composition and properties
Condensation The process by which a gas changes to a liquid
Equilibrium A dynamic condition in which two opposing changes occur at equal rates in a closed system
Equilibrium vapor The pressure exerted by a vapor in equilibrium with it's corresponding liquid at a given temperature
Volatile liquids Liquids that evaporate readily
Boiling The conversion of a liquid to a vapor within the liquid as well as it's surface
Boiling point The temperature at which the equilibrium vapor pressure of the liquid equals the atmospheric pressure
Molar enthalpy of vaporization The amount of energy as heat that is needed to vaporize one mole of liquid at the liquid's boiling point at constant pressure
Freezing The physical change of a liquid to a solid
Freezing point The temperature at which the solid and liquid are in equilibrium at 1 atm pressure
Molar enthalpy of fusion The amount of energy as heat required to melt one mole of solid at the solid's melting point
Sublimation The change of state from a solid directly to a gas
Deposition The change of state from a gas directly to a solid
Phase diagram A graph of pressure versus temperature that shows the conditions under which the phases of a substance exist
Triple Point The temperature and pressure conditions at which the solid, liquid, and vapor of the substance can coexist at equilibrium
Critical Point The critical temperature and critical pressure
Critical Temperature The temperature above which the substance cannot exist in the liquid state
Critical Pressure The lowest pressure at which the substance can exist as a liquid at the critical temperature
Pressure The force per unit area on a surface
Newton The force that will increase the speed of a one-kilogram mass by one meter per second each second that the force is applied
Barometer A device used to measure atmospheric pressure
Millimeters of mercury The common unit of pressure symbolized mm Hg
Atmosphere of pressure Exactly equivalent to 760 mm Hg
Pascal The pressure exerted by a force of one newton acting on an area of one square meter
Partial Pressure The pressure of each gas in a mixture
Dalton's law of partial pressure The total pressure of a gas mixture is the sum of the partial pressure of the component gases
Boyle's law Pressure and volume at a constant temperature are inversely proportional
Absolute zero The temperature -273.15 C is given a value of zero in the Kelvin scale
Charles's law Temperature and volume at a constant pressure are directly proportional
Gay-Lussac's law Pressure and temperature at a constant volume are directly proportional
Combined gas law The relationship between pressure, volume, and temperature of a fixed amount of gas
Avogradro's law equal volumes of gases at the same temperature and pressure contain equal numbers of molecules
Gay-Lussac's law of combining volumes of gases At constant temperature and pressure, the volumes of gaseous reactants and products can be expressed as ratios of small whole numbers
Standard molar volume of a gas The volume occupied by one mole of a gas at STP 22.414 10 L
Ideal Gas Law The mathematical relationship among pressure, volume, termperature, and the number of moles of a gas
Ideal gas constant The constant R
Graham's law of effusion The rates of effusion of gases at the same temperature and pressure are inversely proportional to the square roots of their molar masses
Soluble Capable of being dissolved
Solution A homogenous mixture of two or more substances in a single phase
Solvent The solution that dissolves a substance
Solute The substance dissolved in a solution
Suspension When the particles in a solvent are so large that they settle out unless the mixture id constantly stirred or agitated
Colloids Particles that are intermediate in size between those in solutions and suspensions form mixtures called:
Electrolyte A substance that dissolves in water to give a solution that conducts eletric current
Nonelectrolyte A substance that dissolves in water to give a solution that does not conduct an electric current
Solution Equilibrium The physical state in which the opposing processes of dissolution and crystallization of a solute occur at equal rates
Saturated Solution A solution that contains the maximum amount of dissolved solute
Unsaturated solution A solution that contains less solute than a saturated solution under the existing conditions
Supersaturated solution A solution that contains more dissolve solute than a saturated solution contains under the same condition
Solubility The amount of that substance required to form a saturated solution with a specific amount of solvent at a specified temperature
Hydration The solution process with water as the solvent
Immiscible Liquids that are not soluble in each other
Miscible Liquids that dissolve freely in one another in any proportion
Henry's law The solubility of a gas in a liquid is directly proportional to the partial pressure of that gas on the surface of the liquid
Effervescence The rapid escape of a gas from a liquid in which it is dissolved
Solvate A solute particle that is surrounded by solvent molecules
Enthalpy of solution The net amount of evergy absorbed as heat by the solution when a specific amount of solute dissolves in a solvent
Concentration A measure of the amount of solute in a given amount of solvent or solution
Molarity The number of moles of solute in one liter of solution
Molality The concentration of a solution expressed in moled of solute perkilogram of solvent
Dissociation The separation of ions that occurs when an ionic compound dissolves
Net ionic equation The compounds and ions that undergo a chemical change in a reaction in an aqueous solution
Spectator ions Ions that do not take part in a chemical reaction and are found in solution both before and after the reaction
Ionization When ions are formed from solute molecules by the action of the solvent
Hydronium ion The H3O+ ion
Strong electrolyte An aqueous solution that conducts electricity well
Weak electrolyte An aqueous solution that conducts electricity poorly
Colligative Properties Properties that depend on the concentration of solute particles but not on their identity
Nonvolatile substance A substance that has little tendency to become a gas
Molal freezing point The freezing-points of the pure solvent and a solution of a nonelectrolyte in that solvent, and is directly proportional to the molal concentration of the solution
Molal boiling point constant The boiling point elevation of the solvent in a 1-molal solution of a nonvolatile, nonelectroylte solute
Boiling-point elevation The difference between the boiling points of the pure solvent and a nonelectrolyte solution of that solvent
Semipermeable membrane Allows the passage of some particles while blocking others
Osmosis The movement of solvent through a semipermeable membrane from the side of lower solute concentration to the side of higher solute concentration
Osmotic pressure The external pressure that must be applied to stop osmosis
Binary acid An acid that contains only two different elements: hydrogen and one of the more electronegative elements
Oxyacid An acid that is a compound of hydrogen, oxygen, and a third element usually nonmetal
Arrhenius acid A water solution containing the hydronium ion (H3O+)
Arrhenious base A water solution containing the hydroxide ion (OH-)
Strong acid One that contains a large number of hydronium ions (H3O+)
Weak acid One that contains a large number of hydroxide ions (OH-)
Bronstead acid A proton donor
Bronstead base A proton acceptor
Bonstead acid-base reaction The process in which protons are transferred from one reactant to another
Monoprotic acid An acid that can donate only one proton per molecule
Polyprotic acid An acid that can donate more than one proton per molecule
Diprotic acid An acid that can donate two protons per molecule
Triprotic acid An acid that can donate three protons per molecule
Lewis acid An electron pair acceptor
Lewis base An electron pair donor
Lewis acid-base reaction The formation of one ormore covalent bonds between an electron-pair donor and an electron-pair acceptor
Conjugate acid What is formed when a base accepts a proton
Conjugate base What is left over when an acid donates a proton
Amphoteric Any substance that can react as either an acid or a base
Neutralization The reaction of hydronium ions and hydroxide ions to form water molecules
Salt An ionic compound composed of a cation from a base and an anion from an acid
Self-ionization of water The process that occurs when two water molecules produce a hydronium ion and a hydroxide ion by transfer of a proton
pH The negative of the common logarithm of the hydronium ion concentration
pOH The negative common logarithm of the hydroxide ion concentration
Acid-base indicators Compounds whose colors are sensitive to pH
Transition interval The pH range over which an indicator changes color
pH meter A device used to measure the pH of a solution
Titration The controlled addition and measurement of the amount of solution of known concetration required to react completely with a measure amount of a solution of unknown concentration
Equivalence point The point at which the two solution used in a titration are presen in chemically equivalent amounts
End point The point in titration at which an indicator changes color
Standard solution The solution that contains the precisely known concentration of a solute
Primary standard A highly purified solid compound used to check the concentration of the known solution in titration
Thermochemistry The study of the transfers of energy as heat that accompany chemical reactions and physical changes
Calorimeter The energy absorbe or released as heat in a chemical or physical change
Temperature A measure of the average kineitc energy of the particles in a sample of matter
Joule The SI unit of heat as well as all other forms of energy
Heat The energt transferred between samples of matter because of a difference in their temperatures
Specific heat The amount of energy required to raise the temperature of one gram of a sybstance by one degree Celsius of one kelvin
Enthalpy change The amount of energy absorbed by a system as heat during a process at constant pressure
Enthalpy of reaction The quantity of energy transferred as heat during a chemical reaction
Thermochemical equation An equation that includes the quantity of energy released or absorbed as heat during the reaction as written
Molar enthalpy of formation The enthalpy change that occurs when one mole of a compound is formed from its elements in their standard state at 25 C and 1 atm
Enthalpy of combustion The enthalpy change that occurs during the complete combustion of one mole of a substance
Hess's law The overall enthalpy change in a reaction is equal to the sum of enthalpy changes for the individual steps in the process
Entropy A measure of the degree of randomness of the particles
Free energy The combined enthalpy-entropy function
Free-energy change The difference between the change in ethalpy and the product of the Kelvin temperature and the entropy change
Reaction mechanism The step-by-step process by which a reaction takes place
Intermediates A substance that appears in some steps but not in the net equation
Homogenous reactoin A reaction whose reactants and prducts exist in single phase
Collision theory The set of assumptions regarding collisions and reactions
Acivation energy The energy require to start/begin a reaction
Activated complex A transitional structure that results from an effective collision and that persists while old bonds are breaking and new bonds are forming
Reaction rate The change in concentration of reactants per unit of time
Chemical kinetics The area of chemistry that is concerned with reaction rates and reaction mechanisms
Heterogenoud reactions Reactions that involve reactants in two different phases
Catalyst A substance that speeds up the rate of a reaction without taking place in the reaction
Catalysis The action of a catalyst
Homogenous catalyst A catalyst that is in the same phase as all the reactants anf products in a reaction system
Heterogenous catalyst A catalyst that is in a differenc phase from that of the reactants
Composition Stoichiometry The mass relationships of elements in compounds
Reaction Stoichiometry The mass relationships between reactants and products in a chemical reaction
Mole ratio A conversion factor that relates the amounts in moles of any two substances involved in a chemical reaction
Limiting reactant The reactant that limits the amount of the other reactant that can combine and the amount of product that can form in a chemical reaction
Excess reactant The substance that is not used up completely in a reaction
Theortical yield The maximum amount of product that can be produced from a given amount of reactant
Actual yield The measure anount of a product obtained from a reaction
Percentage yield The ratio of the actual yield to the theoretical yield, multiplied by 100
Created by: Jensen20