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gcse science P4 - F

specific for ocr gateway additonal science B.

QuestionAnswer
what is given out when radioactive substances decay? alpha, beta and/or gamma radiation
why isn't it possible to predict exactly when a nucleus will decay? radioactive decay is a random process
why do radioisotopes have unstable nuclei? their nuclear particles aren't held together strongly enough
what is half-life? the average time it takes for half of the nuclei to decay
what is a nucleon? a particle found in the nucleus
what are protons and neutrons? nucleons
how do you work out the number of neutrons in the nucleus? take away the number of protons (atomic number, on the bottom) from the nucleus number (atomic mass, at the top)
what happens when an alpha or beta particle is emitted from the nucleus of an atom? the nucleus becomes a different element
what is a alpha(α) particle? a helium nucleus which consists of 2 protons and 2 neutrons.
what are some properties of an alpha(α) particle? -positively charged -has a large mass -has helium gas around it
what happens to an alpha(α) particle during decay? -mass number decreases by 4 -nucleus has two less neutrons and protons -atomic number decreases by 2
what is the nuclear symbol equation for decay of an alpha(α) particle? 238 234 4 U - TH + He (α particle) 92 90 2
what is the nuclear word equation for decay of an alpha(α) particle? uranium-238 - Thorium-234 + α particle + x-ray
what is a beta(β) particle? an electron
what are some properties of a beta(β) particle? -negatively charged -has a very small mass -travels very fast
what happens to a beta(β) particle during decay? -mass number doesn't changed -nucleus has one less neutron, but one more proton -atomic number increases by one
what is the nuclear symbol equation for decay of a beta(β) particle? 14 14 0 C - N + e (β particle) 6 7 -1
what is the nuclear word equation for decay of a beta(β) particle? carbon-14 - nitrogen-14 + β particle
Created by: jirwin