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gcse science P4 - E

specific for ocr gateway additonal science B.

QuestionAnswer
what is an unstable atom? when there aren't an equal amount of protons and electrons
what are the 3 different types of radiation? alpha beta gamma
where are these 3 types of radiation emitted from? the nucleus of an unstable atom
why is alpha radiation no use for diagnosis or therapy? it is absorbed by the skin
what is alpha radiation used for? smoke detectors
why is beta radiation's medical applications limited? passes through the skin, but not bone
what is beta radiation used for? to treat the eyes to monitor the thickness of paper
why is gamma radiation used in medicine? it is very penetrating
what is gamma radiation used for? to treat cancers
which gamma-emitting radioactive material is used to treat cancer? cobalt-60
when is ionisation caused? when nuclear radiation passes through a material
what does ionisation radiation do to the body? damages living cells increases the risk of cancer
what is radiotherapy? exposing cancer cells with large amounts of radiation to destroy the cells
what is a similarity between x-rays and gamma rays? they have similar wavelengths
what is a difference between x-rays and gamma rays? they are produced differently
how are x-rays made? by firing high-speed electrons at metal targets
how can you control the rate of production and energy of x-rays? using an x-ray machine
can you change the gamma radiation emitted from a radioactive source? no
how are gamma rays made? when the nucleus of an atom of a radioactive substance decays, any surplus energy is lost by emitting gamma rays
what is a radioactive tracer used for? to investigate inside a patient's body without surgery
what is a commonly used tracer? technetium-99m
what kind of radiation does technetium-99m emit only gamma radiation
what other tracer also emits gamma radiation? iodine-123
what is the tracer iodine-123 used for? to investigate the thyroid gland
how is a radioactive tracer used -mixed with food and drink or injected into the body
what is the progress through the body monitored by? a detector such as a gamma camera which is connected to a computer
what is a radioisotope used for? to destroy a tumour
what is the 1st technique of treating cancer? -3 sources of gamma radiation are arranged around the patient with the tumour at the centre
how does this decrease the damage to healthy tissue? the three sources of radiation each account for one third, meaning the healthy tissue only receives one-third of the dose
what is the 2nd technique of treating cancer? -each radiation source is slowly rotated around the patient
how does this decrease the damage to healthy tissue? the tumour receives constant radiation but healthy tissue receives only intermittent doses
Created by: jirwin