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gcse science C4 - F

specific for ocr gateway additonal science B.

QuestionAnswer
why do chemicals have to be made in different ways? because the amounts are so different
what process is used if something is needed in large amounts? continuous process
what is an example of something produced using the continuous process? ammonia
what process is used if something is needed in small amounts? batch process
what is an example of something produced using the batch process? medicines
what is an advantage of using batch process to make medicines? new batches are made when the stored medicine runs low. if a lot of one medicine is needed, several batches can be made at the same time.
what are 3 advantages of using the continuous process? -works at full capacity all the time -makes a large amount of product -employs very few people, so the cost per tonne is very small
what are 3 disadvantages of using the continuous process? -costs an enormous amount to build -only designed to work at one level of output -can't easily change how much or what is made
what is the main advantage of using the batch process? easy to change from making one compound to another
what are 2 disadvantages of using the batch process? -have to be supervised - labour costs are higher -not used as efficiently as time is wasted emptying, filling and cleaning vessels
how does research, development and testing affect the cost of making medicines? -takes many years to develop a new medicine -takes even longer to test its safety
how do the raw materials affect the cost of making medicines? -may be rare and costly -may need to be extracted from plants that are difficult to find -separating the main chemical from the plant can be time consuming and expensive
how does being labour intensive affect the cost of making medicines? -made by batch process, which needs supervision -less automation can be used
what four factors affect whether or not a drug is developed? -cost: can be expensive as it takes time and labour costs are high -testing drugs to meet legal requirements can take years -there must be enough demand for the drug -length of time taken to pay back the initial investment is long
Created by: jirwin