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gcse science C4 - E

specific for ocr gateway additonal science B.

how is a detergent made? neutralising an organic acid with an alkali
remember the equation for neutralisation? acid + alkali - salt + waterq
what part of the neutralisation equation is the detergent? salt
what does perfume do in washing powder? makes clothes smell nice
what does the detergent do in washing powder? lifts dirt of clothes
what do the enzymes do in washing powder? remove food stains, but only work at low temperatures
what do water softeners do in washing powder? softens hard water
what does the optical brightener do is washing powder? sticks to clothes and makes them really white
what does bleach do in washing powder? removes coloured stains
advantages of washing clothes at low temperatures? -good for the environment -less energy needed -less greenhouse gases -reduced chance of colours running
what does hydrophilic mean? doesn't like water. this end sticks to the grease
what does hydrophobic mean? likes water. this end joins to the water and pulls the grease off the fabric/dish
why is dry-cleaning used? some clothes are damaged if washed in water
what is used instead of water in dry-cleaning? organic solvent
why does dry-cleaning remove grease stains better than water? grease stains don't dissolve in water but they do in the dry-cleaning solvent
what makes dry-cleaning better at removing grease stains than water? dry-cleaning solvent and grease have weak intermolecular forces, meaning they join easily.
what makes water not as good at removing grease stains than dry-cleaning? water have stronger intermolecular forces, called hydrogen bonds. this means that they can't stick to the grease as they are stuck to each other too strongly.
Created by: jirwin