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SParks Chem Vocab

General Vocabulary Review

element substance that cannot be broken down by chemical or physical means
compound pure substance with more than one element
empirical formula simplest whole number ratio of particles in a substance
molecular formula actual number of atoms of each element in a compound
Avogadro's constant/number 6.02 x 10^23 particles
molar mass the mass of one mole of any substance
atomic mass weighted average of all naturally occurring isotopes of a substance
volume the measure of the amount of space an object takes up; its size
mass the amount of matter in an object
inertia tendency of an object to resist being moved
physical property characteristic of an object (can be observed without changing the object)
chemical property describes a substance's ability to react
physical change a change that does not involve changing the chemical properties
chemical change a change that occurs when one or more substances change to new substances with different properties
proton positively-charged part of the atom
electron negatively-charged part of the atom
neutron a neutral particle in the atom
atomic number the number of protons in an atom
mass number the number of protons plus neutrons in an atom
isotope any form of an element with the same number of protons but different number of neutrons
molar mass the mass in grams of 1 mole of a substance
ion a charged particle
cation a positively-charged particle
anion a negatively-charged particle
group column (up & down) of the periodic table
mole metric unit for an amount of substance
boiling point temperature at which the upward vapor pressure equals the downward atmospheric pressure
synthesis reaction X + Y forms XY
decomposition reaction XY breaks into X + Y
single replacement X + YZ changes to Y + XZ
double replacement XA + YB changes to XB + YA
endothermic reaction reaction which requires an input of heat
exothermic reaction reaction that gives off heat
reactant a beginning substance in a reaction (left of the arrow)
product a resulting substance in a reaction (right of the arrow)
oxidation an element loses electrons (becomes more positive)
reduction an element gains electrons
LEO goes GER lose electrons oxidation; gains electrons reduction
activation energy minimum amount of energy needed to start a chemical reaction
catalyst a substance that speeds a chemical reaction by lowering the activation energy
heat equals kinetic energy
acid donates H+
base donates OH-
pH a measure of the hydrogen ion concentration
indicator a compound that shows different colors depending on the pH of its surroundings
dissociation splitting of a compound into its ions in water
thermal expansion a change in volume resulting from temperature change
hydrogen bond a very strong bond between hydrogen and N, O, F (H2O, HF, HN)
Boyle's Law Volume of gas in inversely proportional to pressure (if the temperature and moles are constant) P1 x V1 = P2 x V2
Charles's Law Volume of gas is directly proportional to Kelvin temperature (if pressure and moles are constant) V1/T1 = V2/T2
Combined Gas Law P1 x V1/T1 = P2 x V2/T2
Ideal Gas Law PV = nRT (R = 0.0821 for atm)
equilibrium In a reaction, products form reactants at the same rate that reactants for products. In phase change, the change happens in two directions at the same rate (gas to liquid and liquid to gas)
Created by: swparks72