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Phys-gen. questions

when an object is in projectile motion and it reaches its maximum height, what happens to its vertical velocity it is zero
in projectile motion, how does the amount of time that an object takes to get to its max height compare to the amount of time that it takes for the object to fall back down? it is equal to it
can forces exist between objects that aren't touching? yes
is measurement of mass dependent on gravity? no
the weight of an object can be thought of as being applied at... the center of gravity
the center of gravity can only be located at an objects geometric center if it is... a homogeneous body
when does gravity decrease? increase? farther away from the earth; closer to the earth
what is Newton's first law? F=ma=0 ; a body either at rest of in motion with constant velocity will remain that way unless a net force acts upon it
Newton's first law is also known as... the first law of inertia
if there is no acceleration then there is no net... force acting on the object
what is Newton's second law? ΣF=ma ; no acceleration of an object with mass, m, will occur when the vector sum of the forces results in a cancellation of those forces
what is Newton's third law? Fb=-Fa ; for every force exerted by object b on object a, there is an equal but opposite force exerted by object a on object b
when solving problems that are not only in the x or y direction what do you need to do? break it into its x and y components
what is the weakest of the four forces known to us? gravity
what is the fixed pivot point in rotational motion known as? fulcrum
what generates rotational motion? torque
in circular motion, upon completion of one cycle what is the displacement of the object? zero
in circular motion that demonstrates a constant speed at all points along the pathway what direction does the velocity vector point? tangent to the circular path
in uniform circular motion, what is the tangential force equal to? zero
what generates centripetal acceleration? centripetal force
in circular motion, when a centripetal force is no longer acting on the object what path will the object take? a path tangential to the circle at that point
in nonuniform circular motion there is a ____ force acting to create a _____ acceleration tangential
in nonuniform circular motion, does the resultant force point towards the center of the circle? no
what governs the degree of static friction? total area of contact
does kinetic friction depend on the contact surface area or the velocity of the sliding object? no, it is always a constant value
which is larger: the coefficient of static friction or the coefficient of kinetic friction? the coefficient of static friction
an object experiencing translational equilibrium will have a constant ___ and __ speed and direction
torque is greatest when the force applied is in what direction? perpendicular to the lever arm
translational equilibrium is also known as what? rotational equilibrium? first condition of equilibrium. second condition of equilibrium.
are torques that generate clockwise rotation conventionally negative or positive? negative
in uniform circular motion, in what direction do the centripetal force and acceleration vector point? directly to the center of the circular pathway
what makes up the total mechanical energy? the sum of an object's potential and kinetic energies
what does the first law of thermodynamics state? energy is never created or destroyed
when will the sum of kinetic and potential energies be constant? in the absence of nonconservative forces
what are two things that determine a force as being conservative? if the net work done to move a particle in a round trip path is zero OR if the net work done to move a particle between two points is the same regardless of the path taken
the change in total mechanical energy of a system is equal to what? the work done by nonconservative forces only
what two ways can energy be transferred? work and heat
momentum of a system will be constant when? in the absence of external forces
is momentum conserved in an idealized collision? yes
what three types of collision conserve total momentum? completely elastic collisions, inelastic collisions, and completely inelastic collisions
what is conserved in a completely elastic collision total momentum and total kinetic energy
do inelastic collisions conserve kinetic energy? no
which kinetic energy (final or initial) is larger for an inelastic collision? initial
is kinetic energy conserved in completely inelastic collisions? no
how do inclined planes pulleys and levers make work easier? by allowing for masses to be displaced through the application of lower force over a greater distance
with an idealized pulley, how does the work put into the system compare to the work that comes out of the system? equal
the center of gravity and the center of mass will be the same point as long as what is held constant? g
what does the second law of thermodynamics state? the entropy of the universy is always increasing except at absolute zero
what does the third law of thermodynamics state? absolute zero can never actually be reached
what doesn't happen between objects in thermal equilibrium? heat flow
temperature is related to the average what of the particles? motional kinetic energy
are there negative temperatures on the Kelvin scale? no
a change of 1 degree on the Celsius scale is equal to a change of what on the Kelvin scale? 1 unit
is work done by a system positive or negative? positive
is heat flow into a system positive or negative? positive
is energy conserved even when friction is present? yes
objects in thermal contact and not in thermal equilibrium will ___ until ___ exchange heat energy until they are in thermal equilibrium
what are 2 different units for measuring heat besides the SI unit? calorie and British thermal unit
what are the best heat conductors? the poorest? metals; gases
what can all transfer heat by convection? only fluids
what is special about radiation? it can travel through a vacuum
what is the specific heat of water? 1 Calorie
what happens when heat is added or removed from a system undergoing a phase change? nothing
when will the temperature of an object in a phase change begin to change when heat is being added or removed from it? when all of the substance has been converted to one phase
are phase changes related to changes in kinetic or potential energy? potential
in graphing thermodynamic processes, what axes do volume, pressure and temperature go on? volume on x, temperature on y, pressure on y
how do you find the work done on a system by a pressure-volume curve? area under the curve
what happens to entropy when energy is distributed into a system? it increases
how likely is the spontaneous concentration of energy? highly unlikely
are any real processes reversible? no
what are three temperature dependent physical properties of materials? length, volume, and conductivity
what are considered fluids? gases and liquids
only solids can withstand what? shear tangential forces
2 units for density besides the SI unit? g/ml g/cm^3
what is the density of pure water? 1,000 kg/m^3
for an object to be more dense than water what must its specific gravity be? greater than one
pascal to atm to torr to 760 mmHg? 1.013x10^5=1=760=760
are gases compressible? yes
is the buoyant force due to the liquid or the object? the liquid
what does surface tension result from? cohesion
cohesion occurs between molecules with what? the same properties
when will a meniscus form? when adhesive forces are greater than cohesive forces
when will a backwards meniscus form? when cohesive forces are greater than adhesive forces
when there is an indentation (such as due to an insects foot) on the surface of water, what leads to a net upward force? cohesion
what can be thought of as a measure of fluid friction? viscosity
what should you assume in low viscosity fluids with laminar flow? conservation of energy
what causes the formation of eddies? turbulent flow
do the layers in laminar flow have the same linear velocity? no
when the critical velocity for a fluid is exceeded, where does laminar flow occur? only in the boundary layer
how will a velocity vector point in relation to a streamline? tangential
what is constant for a closed system and is independent of changes in cross-sectional area volumetric rate of flow
how does a system at higher pressures density compare to one at a lower pressure? greater
for an incompressible fluid that is not experiencing friction forces, what sum will be constant for a closed container? the sum of the static pressure and dynamic pressure
an increase in the velocity of a fluid does what to the pressure that the fluid exerts on the walls? decrease
youngs modulus is applicable for what kind of forces? stretching or pushing forces
shear modulus is applicable for what kind of force? parallel
rank the bulk moduli of the three phases from smallest to largest gases < liquids < solids
the speed of sound is proportional to the square root of what modulus? bulk modulus
for all three moduli, what represents a more rigid material? large
incompressible fluids demonstrate an inverse relationship between what and what? dynamic pressure and static pressure
both fluids and solids can exert what? perpendicular forces
is an electrostatic force attractive or repulsive? can be both
lower humidity and cold air does what to charge? it makes it easier for charge to become and remain separated
what is the fundamental unit of charge and how many coulombs does it equal? e=1.60x10^-19 C
what is the direction of an electric field vector? the direction that a positive test charge would move in the presence of the source charge
do field lines or stream lines ever cross each other? no
what tells whether the force vector will be in the same direction of the electric field vector or not? the sign on the charge
if left to its own accord, in what direction will a charge move? in a direction to decrease the system's electrical potential energy
potential difference is also known as voltage
is electrostatic force conservative or nonconservative? conservative
in what direction does positive charge move spontaneously? high voltage to low voltage
is work done when moving a test charge from one point to another on an equipotential line? no
dipoles can be either ___ or ___ transient or permanent
the electric potential at any point along the plane of the perpendicular bisector of the dipole is what? zero
electric field vectors along the perpendicular bisector will point in a direction opposite to what? a dipole moment
when an electric dipole is placed in a uniform electric field, what will happen to it? it will begin to rotate until it aligns itself with the electric field
does an electric dipole placed in a uniform electric field experience translational motion? no
Created by: kerzy27
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