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# Physics- definitions

numbers that have magnitude and direction vectors
numbers that have magnitude only scalars
log(y)=x easier way to write.. 10^x=y
a-b=a+(-b) ; formula for doing what? subtracting vectors
ratio of the displacement vector over the change in time velocity
ratio of the total distance traveled over the change in time average speed
motion that follows a path along two dimensions projectile motion
measure of a bodys inertia mass
measure of a gravitational force on an objects mass weight
the rate of change of velocity that an object experiences as a result of some applied force acceleration
measure of gravitational force on an objects mass weight
rate of change of velocity that na object experiences as a result of some applied force acceleration
attractive force felt by all forms of matter gravity
occurs when forces cause an object to move without any rotation about a fixed point in the object translational motion
occurs when forces are applied against an object in such a way as to cause the object to rotate around a fixed pivot point rotational motion
occurs when forces cause an object to move in a circular pathway circular motion
generates centripetal acceleration centripetal force
a kind of force that works to oppose the movement of objects friction
a type of friction that exists between a stationary object and the surface upon which it rests static
a type of friction that exists between a sliding object and the surface over which the object slides kinetic
occurs when the vector sum of the forces or torques acting on an object is zero mechanical equilibrium
exists when the vector sum of all of the forces acting on an object is zero translational equilibrium
exists when the vectr
an attractive force that is felt by all forms of matter gravity
occurs when forces cause an object to move without any rotation about a fixed point in the object translational motion
occurs when forces are applied against an object in such a way as to cause the object to rotate around a fixed pivot point rotational motion
occurs when forces cause an object to move in a circular pathway circular motion
circular motion in which the speed of the moving object changes over the course of the path nonuniform circular motion
a kind of force that works to oppose the movement of objects friction
friction that exists between a stationary object and the surface upon which it rests static friction
friction that exists between a sliding object and the surface over which the object slides kinetic friction
occurs when the vector sum of the forces of torques acting on an object is zero mechanical equilibrium
exists when the vector sum of all of the forces acting on an object is zero translational equilibrium
exists only when the vector sum of all the torques acting on an object is zero rotational equilibrium
change in momentum impulse
a property or characteristic of a system to do something or make something happen energy
an object has this when it has the potential to do something potential energy
energy found in covalent and ionic bonds holding atoms together, for example chemical potential energy
energy found in a compressed spring, for example mechanical potential energy
a process by which energy is transferred from one system to another work
the rate at which energy is transferred from one system to another power
the product of an objects mass and velocity momentum
the tendency of objects to resist changes in their motion and momentum inertia
a collision that results in the production of light, heat, sound, or object deformation inelastic collision
collision in which the objects that collide stick together rather than bouncing off each other completely inelastic collision
any device that allows for work to be accomplished through a reduced applied force provides this mechanical advantage
a measure of the amount of work you put into a system that comes out as useful work efficiency
the weight of an object being lifted is called what the load
the point within any two or three dimensional object at which the entire object's mass could be represented as a single particle center of mass
the point at which the entire force due to gravity can be thought of as acting center of gravity
states that when net work is done on or by a system, the system's kinetic energy will change by the same amount work-energy theorem
objects are in thermal equilibrium when they are at the same temperature zeroth law
theoretical temperature at which there is no thermal energy absolute zero
phenomenon that a change in the temperature of most solids results in a change in their length thermal expansion
thermal expansion for liquids volume expansion
the process by which a quantity of energy is transferred between two objects as a result of a difference in temperature heat
the direct transfer of energy from molecule to molecule through molecular collisions conduction
the transfer of heat by the physical motion of the heated material convection
the transfer of energy by electromagnetic waves radiation
the amount of heat energy required to raise 1 kg of a substance by 1 K specific heat
phase change from liquid to solid freezing
phase change from solid to liquid melting or fusion
temperature corresponding to the heat of transformation between liquid and solid heat of fusion
phase change from liquid to gas vaporization
phase change from gas to liquid condensation
temperature corresponding to the heat of transformation between gas and liquid heat of vaporization
phase change from solid to gas sublimation
phase change from gas to solid deposition
process under which pressure is held constant isobaric
process where volume is held constant isovolumetric or isochoric
process where there is no heat exchange adiabatic
process where the internal energy is constant closed cycle or isothermal
the measure of the spontaneous dispersal of energy at a specific temperature entropy
a process that will happen in nature when a system is left to its own accord natural
a process that won't happen in nature unnatural
has the ability to flow and conform the the shape of its container fluid
the ratio of the density of a substance to that of pure water at 1 atm, 4 degrees Celsius specific gravity
the total pressure that is exerted on an object that is submerged in a fluid absolute pressure
the difference between absolute and atmospheric pressure gauge pressure
the study of fluids at rest and the forces and pressures associated with standing fluids hydrostatics
principle that for incompressible fluids, a change of pressure applied to an enclosed fluid will be transmitted undiminished to every portion of the fluid and to the walls of the containing vessel pascal's principle
take advantage of incompressiblity of liquids to generate mechanical advantage hydraulic systems
causes the liquid surface to form a thin but strong layer surface tension
the attractive force that a molecule of liquid feels toward other molecules of the liquid cohesion
the attractive force that a molecule of the liquid feels toward the molecules of some other substance adhesion
the study of fluids in motion hydrodynamics
the resistance of a fluid to flow viscosity
fluids with no viscosity ideal fluids
flow that is smooth and orderly laminar flow
flow that is rough and disorderly turbulent flow
thin layer of fluid adjacent to the wall boundary layer
representations of the molecular movement streamlines
tells us that fluids will flow more quickly through narrow passages and more slowly through wider ones continuity equation
pressure associated with the movement of fluid dynamic pressure
a phase that is rigid enough to retain its shape and can withstand tangential forces solid
a measure of the response of a solid to an application of pressure elasticity
the change in length, volume, or lateral displacement that an object may experience due to pressure shear
applied pressure stress
change in length per unit length strain for youngs modulus
point of shape change beyond which a material will not return to its original dimensions yield strength
the point of shape change beyond which the object will rupture ultimate strength
ratio of the lateral movement per unit height strain for shear modulus
indicates the degree to which a material will experience a change in its volume in relation to an applied pressure bulk modulus
principle that states that the volume of fluid displaces by an object placed in it will generate a buoyant force against the object that is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced archimedes' principle
the study of stationary charges and the forces that are created by and act upon these charges electrostatics
represent how a positive test charge would m ove in the presence of a source charge field lines or lines of force
a form of potential energy that is related to the relative position of one charge with respect to another charge or to a collection of charges electric potential energy
the work necessary to move a test charge from infinity to a point in space in an electric field surrounding a source charge electric potential energy
the ratio of the magnitude of a charge's electric potential energy to the magnitude of the charge itself electric potential
a line on which the potential at every point is the same equipotential line
results from two equal and opposite charges being separated a small distance from each other electric dipole
Created by: kerzy27

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