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CHemistry proteins

Protein chain of amino acids
Amino acids organic molecule consisting of an amino group, a carboxylic group, and a side-chain that is specific to each amino acid
Amino group organic compounds that contain a nitrogen atom with a lone pair
dipeptide chains contain exactly two amino acids chained together
Polypeptides contain 10 or more amino acids chained together
Proteins Proteins contain 50 or more amino acids chained together
Protein quality is measured in... in terms of biological value (BV)
High quality protein (those with high BV's) contain all nine essential amino acids
Low quality proteins lack one or more of the nine essential amino acids
Proteins with a high BV most often come from animal origin
Endurance athletes need extra protein intake for tissue and the use of branched-chain amino acids for ATP production (energy)
The average person should intake about ____ g of protein per kg of body weight .8
Carbohydrate compound composed of multiple hydroxyl groups and a carbonyl group
A hydroxyl group contains an oxygen atom connected by a covalent bond to a hydrogen atom (–OH)
A carbonyl group contains a carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom (C=O)
Carbohydrates are composed of only Carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
Carbohydrates are... sugars
Monosaccharides the simplest carbohydrates; often called simple sugars
Glucose, galactose, and fructose isomers
Monosaccharides contain ___ carbon atoms 6
Monosaccharides have a ____ group on one carbon and hydroxyl groups on most of the other carbons carbonyl
Monosaccharides are ______ and have high _______ water soluble and melting points
Glucose is the most common monosaccharides
Disaccharides two monosaccharides bonded together
Sucrose = glucose + fructose
Lactose = glucose + galactose
Maltose = glucose + glucose
polysaccharides three or more monosaccharides bonded together
glycogenesis process of converting glucose to glycogen
Glycolysis the process that converts glycogen into pyruvate
complex carbs broken down into glucose and can be used as fuel or stored in muscle and the liver as glycogen
Glycolysis provides more ____ than simple sugar conversion ATP
Lipid large, nonpolar, biological molecule
Fatty acid a hydrocarbon chain with a carboxylic group (COOH) on one end
saturated bond the hydrocarbon chain contains only single bonds
Monounsaturated fat – the hydrocarbon chain contains one double or triple bond
Polyunsaturated fat the hydrocarbon chain contains more than one double or triple bond
Hydrogenation addition of hydrogen to carbon atoms in a double or triple bond
Triglyceride – three fatty bonded to a glycerol backbone
wax lipid formed by combining a fatty acid with a long chain alcohol
steroid compound that contains an arrangement of four cycloalkane that are joined to each other
cholesterol waxy steroid
catabolism the breakdown of complex molecules into simpler molecules
Anabolism the synthesis of larger, more complex molecules from smaller, simpler molecules
metabolism the total of all the catabolic and anabolic processes in a biological system
Created by: StudyStacks



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