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Organic Chem Basics

Organic Chemistry Basics

organic chemistry chemistry related to the compounds containing carbons
funcational group an atom or group of atoms within a molecume that shows a characterisitic set of predictable physical and chemical behaviors
alcohol group a compund containing an -OH group bonded to a tetrahedral carbon atom
hydroxyl group an -OH group bonded to a tetrahedral carbon atom
amine an organic compund in which 1,2 or 3 hydrogens of ammonia are replaced by carbon groups of RNH2 OR R2NH OR R3N
amino group an -NH2, RNH2, OR R3N group
carbonyl group a C=O group
aldehyde a compound containing a carbonyl group bonded to a hydrogen a -CHO group
ketone a compound containing a carbonyl group bonded to 2 carbon groups
carboxyl group a -COOH group
ester a derivation of carboxylic in which the H of the carbon group
alkane a saturated hydrocarbon whose carbon atoms are arranged in a chain
hydrocarbon a compound that contains only carbon and hydrogen atoms
saturated hydrocarbon a hydrocarbon that contains only C-C bonds
aliphatic hydrocarbon bonds an alkane
line angle formula an abbreviated way to draw structure formulas in which each vertex and line terminus represents a carbon atom and each line represents a bond
consitutional isomers compounds with the same molecular formula but a different connectivity of their atoms
alkyl groups a group derived by removing a hydrogen from an alkane given the symbol R
R- a symbol used to represent an alkyl group
cycloalkane a saturated hydrocarbon that contains carbon atoms boned to form a ring
conformations any 3-D arrangement of atoms in a molecule that results from rotation about a single bond
equatorial position a position on a chair conformation of a cyclohexane ring that extends from the ring roughly perpendicular to an imaginary axis of the ring
axial position a position on a chair confromation of a cyclohexane ring that extends from the ring prallel to the imaginary axis of the ring
cis-trans isomers that have the same connectivity of their atoms but a different arrangement of their atoms in space due to the presence of either a ring or a C=C
sterocenter tertahedral atoms most commonly carbon at which exchange of 2 groups produces a stereoisomer
configuration refers to the arrangment o fatoms about a stereocenter that is the reative arrangment of parts of a molecule in space
stereoisomer isomer that have the same connectivity of their atoms but different orientation of their atoms in space
alkene an unsaturated hydrocarbon that contains a C=C
alkyne an unsaturated hydrocarbon that contains a triple C C bond
Termal Cracking a saturated hydrocarbon that is converted into an unsaturated hydrocarbon plus H2
cycloalkenes number of carbon atoms of the ring = bond 1 and 2
Terpene a compund whose carbon skeleton can be divided into two or more units identical to 5 carbon skeleton of isoprene
Essential oils highly fragrant oils from plants (rose, fressia, etc)
regioselective reaction a reaction in which one direction of bond formation or bond breaking occurs in preference to all other directions
markovinkov's rule in the addition of HX or H2O to alkene Hydrogens add to the carbon of the C=C having a greater humber of Hydrogens
reaction mechanism a step by step description of how a chemical reaction occurs
carbocation a species containing carbon atoms with only 3 bonds to it and bearing a positive charge
hydration addition of water
oxonium ion an ion in which oxygen is bonded to 3 other atoms and bears a positive charge
catalytic reducation/ catalytic hydrogenation the conversion of an alkane involves reducation by hydrogen in teh presence of a catalyst
polymer many parts any long chain molecule synthesized by bonding together many single parts called monomers
monomer single part, simplest nonredundant unit from which a polymer is synthesized
peroxide any compund that contains an -O-O- bond as for example hydrogen peroxide H-O-O-H
aromatic compunds benzene or one of its derivatives
arene a compund contian one or more benzene rings
aryl group a group derived from an arene by removal of an H and given the symbol Ar-
Ar- The symbol fused for aryl group
Resonance hybid a molecule best decribed as a composite of 2+ Lewis structures
contributing structure each individual lewis structure
phenyl group C6H15 aryl group derived by removing an Hydrogen atom from a benzene
Autoxidation ocidation requiring oxygen and no other reactant
Active figure autoxidation is a radical chain reaction vonverting hydrocarbons to a a hyroperoxide
Chain length number of times the cycle of chain propagation steps repeats
Diol a compound containing 2 -OH groups
Triol a compound containing 3 -OH groups
Glycol a compound with hydroxyl groups on adjacent carbons
hydrogen bonding Dipole-Dipole bond, between electronegative atoms and a hydrogen bonded to another electronegative atom
dehydration elimination of molecule of water from an alcohol, OH is removed from 1 C and H is removed from the adjacent C
ether a compund containing an oxygen between 2 atoms
cyclic ether an ether in which the ether oxygen is one of the atoms of the ring
thiol an -SH (sulfhydroyl group) bonded to a tetrahedral carbon atom
mercaptan a common name for any molecule containing an -SH group
electronegativity electons pulling ability on a molecule
polarity how equally bonding electons are shared between atoms, effects solubility, melting and boiling points
covalent bonding sharing of pairs of electrons
ionic bonding electrostative bond between 2 oppositely charged ions
sigma bonding 2 atoms are held together by the forces operating between them and a pair of elections shared by them the electon pair occupies an orbital
pi bond a conhesive interaction between to atoms and a pair of elections that occupy and an orbital located in 2 regions parallel
free radical a compound containing an unpaired electron
Diradical a compound that contains 2 unpaired electrons (oxygen)
Monoterpene 2 Isoprenes
Sesquiterpenes 3 Isoprenes
Diterpenes 4 Isoprenes
Triterpenes 6 Isoprenes
Tetraterpenes 8 Isoprenes
Wohler Made an organic out of 2 inorganics
Fredrick.Kekule Redefined organics how we know know it and found the benzene ring
Markovinkov rule of bonding H go towards more H's in reaction for stability
L. Pauling motion within benzene rings
Created by: jamilah