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# sciencechapter 17

Distance The separation in time or space between two points or locations. A scalar quantity that represents the length of a path from one point to another.
Interference The effect produced by two or more waves passing simultaneously through a region. Patterns of constructive and destructive interference depend on the nature of the combining waves.
period The time required for the completion of a single vibration, or event, of a periodic phenomena, such as a periodic wave or an orbit. The second, s, is the standard unit for period of a wave. The period is the reciprocal of the frequency of a wave:
formula for period T = 1/f
frequency The number of vibrations occurring per unit of time. The frequency of a wave is inversely related to its period. The hertz , Hz, is the standard unit of frequency: 1 Hz = 1 cycle/second.
formula for frequency f = 1/T.
periodic wave A series of regular (evenly timed) disturbances in a medium.
refraction The change in direction of a wave that occurs when the wave passes at an angle through a boundary between two different media and across which there is a change in speed.
longitudinal waves The vibratory disturbance in a longitudinal wave is parallel to the direction of travel of the wave. For example, sound waves are longitudinal.
amplitude The maximum distance from the rest position in a wave. Amplitude is related to intensity. As the amplitude of a light wave increases, the light gets brighter. As the amplitude of a sound wave increases, the sound gets louder.
reflected ray When an incident ray strikes a surface, the light ray that is reflected from it is called the reflected ray. The angle of reflection is equal to the angle of incidence.
destructive interference the effect of when a wave crest meets a wve trough, the waves will combine to form a wave with a lower amplitude. maximum=180 degrees.
angle of incidence The angle at which an incident light ray or other wave strikes the surface of a medium, measured relative to a normal (perpendicular) to the surface. In the diagram below, the angle of incidence is θ. always equal to the angle of reflection!
medium An environment in which a reaction can occur, or a material though which a disturbance travels. For examples, sound waves travel through the air.
constructive interference the result of a wave crest meeting a crest, when the two waves combine to form a larger amplitude. Maximum constructive interference occurs at points where the phase difference is 0°.
transverse wave The vibratory disturbance of a transverse wave is perpendicular to the direction of travel of the wave. For example, light waves are transverse.
displacement A vector quantity that represents the length and direction of a straight line path from one point to another. The magnitude of displacement is distance.
angle of reflection The angle at which a light ray or other wave is reflected from the surface of medium, measured relative to a normal (perpendicular) to the surface. In the diagram below, the angle of reflection is θ. always equal to the angle of incidence!
regular reflection An effect produced by polished surfaces, usually resulting an image of the source.
hertz The standard unit of frequency: 1 hertz = 1 cycle/second.
standing wave Produced when two waves of the same frequency and amplitude travel in opposite directions in the same medium. A standing wave does not travel (hence its name); instead, it oscillates about an equilibrium position.
Created by: cmstullia

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