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Chapter 2

Matter material that has mass and occupies space
Pure Substance matter that has a fixed or definite composition 1.) elements or 2. compounds
Element A pure substance that cannot be separated into any simpler substances by chemical methods
Compounds 1. Pure substances 2. consist of a combination of two or more elements 3. always in same ratio Ex. H2O is water - but H2O2 is hydrogen peroxide
Mixture Two or more substances are physically mixed, but not chemically combined
Homogeneous mixture 1. Also called solution 2. Air & salt water are examples 3. Composition is uniform throughout sample
Heterogeneous mixture Components are NOT uniform throughout sample Ex. choc. chip cookies; oil & water
Na - What is Latin root? Natrium = salt = sodium
Fe - Latin root Ferrum = Iron
Ag - Latin root Argentum = silver
Who invented Periodic Table? Mendeleev
Period - describe A horizontal row on the Periodic Table 2. each has a number (regular print)
Group - how designated on Periodic Table? Each VERTICAL COLUMN contains a group or family of elements with similar properties 3. Designated 1A - (sometimes with Roman numerals)
Alkali metals Group 1A elements 2. Soft, shiny metals 3. Good conductors of heat 4. Relatively low melting points 5. React with water
Is hydrogen alkali metal? No, even though it is at top of Column 1A
Alkali metals (names) LI - Lithium, Na - sodium, K - potassium, RB rubidium, Cs Cesium
Al (blank)
Alkaline Earth metals (properties) Shiny metals, but not as reactive as Group 1A
Halogens - Group 7A (17) Strongly reactive-form compounds
Halogens - name some elements F-fluorine, Cl-chlorine, Br-bromine, I- iodine and At astatine
Zigzag line on periodic table Separates Metals from nonmetals
Metalloids Located adjacent to the zigzag line
Atom smallest particle of an element that retains the characteristics of that element
Dalton's Atomic Theory (4) a. All matter is made of tiny particles-atoms 2. Atoms of one element are different from others 3. Atoms combine to form compounds 4. Chemical reactions combines atoms; but they are never created or destroyed--rearrangements
Proton subatomic particle with a POSITIVE charge
Electron subatomic particle with NEGATIVe Charge
amu Atomic Mass Unit - Defined as 1/12 the mass of the carbon atom
Rutherford's experiment Gold foil was bombarded with positive particles - who deflected paths rather than pass straight through - the NUCLEUS surrounded by mostly empty space
Atomic number Equals # of PROTONS in element
Mass number Mass number = number of protons plus number of neutrons
Isotopes Atoms of the same element with a different number of NEUTRONS Ex. Mg - can be Mg24/12 Mg 25/12 or Mg 26/12
How can you tell it is an isotope? Write Atomic Symbol with mass number on top, element in middle, atomic number on bottom
Atomic mass-how do you determine? AVERAGE of weights of all isotopes of the element
Calculate Atomic Mass Multiply isotope by its mass times its "abundance" (percent found) = average atom
Atomic spectrum Each element creates unique pattern of colors when light emitted from a heated element is passed through a prism
Quantized Refers to different energy levels in atomic pathways
Sublevels Energy levels within atoms; contain electrons with identical energy
Orbital Region//pathway where electron is likely to be found
Pauli exclusion principle States that any given orbital can hold up to 2 electrons but no more
Orbital diagram Electron configurations/pathways
Electron configuration Patterns of energy within the structure of the atoms
alkali A (first group) includes Li (lithium) K Potassium and Na (sodium)
alkaline earh metals Begins with Be (Berium) Mg (magnesium) Calcium (Ca)
Halogens F (flourine) Cl (chlorine) Br (bromine) react quick as HAL-ogens
isotope Atoms with different numbers of neutrons (DOUBLE O's in isotope mean double neutrons)
How can you tell it's an isotope? Look at mass number - written top right "isolated" from regular atoms
How referred? Magnesium-24, Magnesium-25, Magnesium 26
copper Cu is in what part of periodic table? transition elements
Created by: walterina4327