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CHEM 126 Chapter 13

CHEM 126 Final

IMAFs on protein - secondary: form shape - tertiary: overall 3D shape ** determines function - quanternary: arrangement of two or more polypeptide chains in protein
IMAFs on DNA - created by nucleic acids, two chains wrapped around each other in a double helix - polar exterior: PO4 groups interact with ion dipole & h bonds - polar interior: N containing bases, interact by dispersion forces - h bonds: keep chains together
colloid - dispersed (solute-like) substance distributed throughout a dispersing (solvent-like) substances - particles are larger than simple molecules but too small to settle out - EX: G-G (all gases) G-L (foam) L-L (milk) S-L (jelly)
Osmotic Pressure (concentration effects) - increases with number of solute particles - OP = (n solute/ v solution) *RT * n = moles of solute, R = gas constant, T = temp, V = volume of solution)
Freezing Point (concentration effects) - decreases with increasing solute particles -∆T f = ∆Kf*M *m = molality, Kf = freezing point depression constant, ∆Tf = Tf solvent - Tf solution - ∆T > 0 -> decrease in freezing point
Boiling Point (concentration effects) - increases when solute particles increase - boiling point elevation: ∆Tb = Kb * m * Kb = boiling point elevation constant, m = molality, ∆Tb = Tb solution - Tb solvent
Vapor Pressure (concentration effects) - decreases with number of particles of solute (more particles -> lower VP) -P solvent (∆P) = X solvent * P0 solvent * X solvent = 1 - X solute ∆P > 0 -> decrease in VP
Parts by Mass (or volume) - Volume of solute (L)/ volume of solution (L) - composition
Mole Fraction - amount of solute (mol)/ (amount of solute (mol) + amount of solution (mol)) -Vapor-Pressure Determination, Composition
Molality - m - amount of solute (mol)/ mass of solvent (kg) - colligative behavior
Molarity - M - (amount of solute (mol)/volume of solution (L)) - moles of solute that would be dissolved in 1 L of a solution - stoichiometry equations & analysis
Henry's Law - determines gas solubility at given pressures - S gas = K h * P gas * s= solubility (mol/L) Kh = Henry's Law Constant, P = pressure
effect of pressure on solubility - increase pressure -> increase GAS solubility - increase pressure -> decrease does not affect solid of liquid solubility
effect of temp on solubility - increase temp -> increase solid solubility - increase temp -> decrease gas solubility
supersaturated - amount dissolved is more than max dissolved possible - unstable solution & will easily seperate out
unsaturated - amount dissolved is less than max dissolved possible
saturated - max amount of dissolved solid - crystallization rate = dissolving rate
sontaneity energy contribution - entropy contribution * help determine if process occurs spontaneously
entropy distribution of energy over larger number of states
∆H equations ∆H solution = ∆H solute + ∆ H solvation/hydration (always < 0) ∆H solvation = ∆H solvant + ∆H mixing ∆H solute = -∆H lattice (always > 0)
Solubility - S - max amount that dissolveds in a fixed quantity of a given solvent at a given temp - excess of solute is present
different types of solution L-S (salt water) L-L (gasoline) G-G (natural gas) G-L (soda) G-S (H2 + Pd) S-S (alloys)
2 substances form a solution? ∆H = exothermic -> unfavorable, will not mix * breaking strong for weak ∆H = endothermic -> favorable & will mix * breaking weak for strong
Created by: ccottrel