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CHEM 126 Chapter 12

CHEM 126 Final

Ion-Dipole force - strength depends on charge density & size of ion (stronger as charge of ion or magnitude of dipole increases) - most commonly found in solutions - positive (cation) attracts partially negative & anion (anion) attracts partially negative - EX: h20 + N
Dipole - Dipole force attractive forces between positive end of 1 polar molecule & negative end of another polar molecule - weaker than ionic & covalent bonds (only significant when touching) - EX: I + Cl
Ion Induced Dipole force - ion induces a dipole of an atom/in a nonpolar molecule (disrupt e- arrangement in nonpolar specieis --> form a dipole) - EX: Fe+2 induces 02
Dipole Induced Dipole force - polar molecules induce a dipole in an atom/in a nonpolar molecule (disrupt e- arrangement in nonpolar species) - EX: ethanol (polar) induces I2 (nonpolar)
Hydrogen Bond - strongest bond - H + (N, O, or F) - H has high + charge density & high - charge density
Dispersion Forces - NON POLAR molecules induce dipolse on each other - ex: oils, gas, unfamiliar forms of substance - polarizable e-clouds
range of attraction strength 1. ionic 2. covalent 3. ion-dipole 4. hydrogen bonding 5. dispersion forces 6. dipole-dipole 7. ion-induced dipole 8. dipole-induced dipole
properties of a solid high intermolecular forces, low KE, high PE
properties of a liquid medium intermolecular forces, equal KE and PE
properties of a gas low intermolecular forces, high KE and low PE
melt/fusion solid to liquid (increase temp) q = n(∆H°fus)
freeze liquid to solid (decrease temp) q = n(-∆H°fus)
vaporize/boil liquid to gas (increase temp) q = n(∆H°vap)
condensation gas to liquid (decrease temp) q = n(-∆H°vap)
sublimation solid to gas (increase temp)
deposition gas to solid (decrease temp)
vapor pressure - liquid gas equilibium - high vapor pressure --> evaporate more quickly - system will adjust rates of vapor/condensation to return to same vapor pressure
boiling point vapor pressure = external, varies with altitude due to pressure change
melting/freezing point - solid liquid equilibrium, pressure has no effect
PHASE DIAGRAM - line between two phases = where at equilibrium - triple point = all at equilibrium - critical point = when equilibrium between liquid and gas becomes non-existent and turns into state in between both
surface tension -energy required to increase the surface area (J/m2) - increase SA -> molecules move up to exterior by breaking attractions in the interior - stronger intermolecular forces -> more energy to increase SA -> more surface tension
capillarity - rising of a liquid against the pull/gravity through a narrow space - competition between IMAFs within a liquid & those between the liquid & tube walls
concave up vs. concave down meniscus - UP: IMAFs are stronger within substance vs between the substance & glass - DOWN: IMAFs from substance and glass form adhesive bonds with glass, cohesion forces between glass & substance
polar & nonpolar surface interaction - adhesive forces between nonpolar (dipole induced dipole) are weaker than polar (H-bonds)-> pull away - EX: h20 & non polar surface
Viscosity - resistance of a fluid to flow - results from IMAFs that impeded movement of molecules around and past each other - liquid > gas(more places for IM forces to act)
external effects on viscosity - TEMP: v decreases with increased temp - MOLECULAR SHAPE: small/sphere - little contact, pour easily VS. long/large - more contact & pour slower
bond length & covalent radius - bond length: between two bonded atoms in the SAME MOLECULE - 1/2 bond length = covalent raidus
van der waals distance & radius - raidus: distance between nuclei of identical nonbonded atom, always larger than covalent radius - radii decreases across a period and increases down a group
Created by: ccottrel