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Chem Final

Definition of ‘aromatic’ compound contains an aromatic ring; responsible for pungent tastes and smells of natural products; biologically active compounds; acts as a natural insecticides, pesticides and for many plants and animals whose systems naturally create these compounds
Definition of ‘compound’ substance formed from the chemical combination of two or more elements; the properties of a compound are unique compared to the elements from which it was made (ex. Water, sugar, salt, ammonia)
Definition of ‘organic compound’ obtained from living organisms, which contain the chemical element Carbon; grown without artificial pesticides/herbicides or synthetic fertilizers
Myisticin and Elemicin Compound responsible for hallucinogenic properties of Nutmeg
Definition of ‘structural isotope’ : (ex. Eugenol/isoeugenol, cis-isoprene/trans-isoprene, fructose/glucose); when the two have the same chemical formula but their structures look different
Definition of antioxidant chemical that reduces the rate of oxidation reactions, characterized by an atom’s actions involving a loss of electrons (ex. Vitamin C)
Definition and cause of scurvy disease caused by a deficiency of vitamin C, swollen bleeding gums and opening of previously healed wounds (other symptoms: exhaustion, swelling of arms, hemorrhaging from nose and mouth, diarrhea, loss of teeth, lung and kidney problems);
Definition and examples of monosaccharide another term for simple sugar (glucose and fructose)
Biological symptoms of PKU cannot metabolize phenylalanine and host can’t break down amino acids (enzyme missing – genetic mutation)
Condensation Reaction a chemical reaction in which two molecules or moieties (functional groups) combine to form one single molecule, together with the loss of a small molecule
Dehydration Synthesis the reaction responsible for the ability of a plant to create sucrose
Reason that artificial sweeteners taste sweet hydrogen bonding between the sweet compound and the taste bud protein, as modeled with the A-H, B model of taste
Importance of the Haber Process agriculture – important fertilizer, helped ensure the western world could grow enough food on its limited farmland areas; explosives – dissolves in water to make nitric acid (Haber Process was a domestic route to ammonia)
Synthetic man-made material that is IDENTICAL to the natural product in chemical structure and in properties (ex. Vitamin C tablets vs. ascorbic acid from an orange)
artificial man-made or natural product that has the same properties, but does not necessarily have the same chemical structure (ex. Splenda vs. sugar)
Definition of protein chain of amino acids; 22 amino acids to make up an infinite number of proteins
storage polysaccharides stores energy for later use; pectin, starch, glycogen; basic unit = α - glucose (α – linkages); plant examples: amylose, amyopectin
structural polysaccharides for support; a framework for an organism (ex. Cellulose, chitin); cellulose unit: β – glucose; B-cellulose cannot be digested (‘dietary fiber’) but some organisms (cows, termites) use beneficial bacteria to access the energy in it
Definition and source of ‘latex’ the name of the material gathered from hevea bransiliensis – the isoprene is exclusively the cis isomer; sources from many plants including dandelions and poinsettias
Reasons behind synthesis of synthetic rubber compounds during WWII German blockade of Allied rubber plantations (artificial rubber: styrene butadiene rubber – SBR)
Definition of dye organic molecule; absorbs some wavelengths of light preferentially; reflects all the other wavelengths; pigments use ‘subtractive color’
Name and symbols for carbon, nitrogen, iron, chlorine and hydrogen C, N, Fe, Cl, H
Definition of antibiotic resistance when bacteria gain the ability to overcome antibiotic activity
Active ingredient in aspirin Acetylsalicylic Acid (originally isolated from the bark of the willow tree)
Definition of antipyretic reduces fever
Definition of analgesic reduces pain
Active ingredient in the first Pill Norethindrone (artificial progestin that stops ovulation)
Relationship between cholesterol, olive oil, HDL and LDL oleic acid is considered to be “healthy” because it is a monounsaturated fatty acid which doesn’t change the LDL: HDL ratio but still improves your serum HDL
saturated no double or triple bonds; straight chains; increase serum cholesterol
monounsaturated no effect on serum cholesterol
polyunsaturated has one or more double or triple bonds; more bent shape; decrease serum cholesterol
History and role of bufotoxin poison that has sometimes been misidentified as “eye of the newt” but is actually a venom from a frog
History and role of scopolamine structurally similar to atropine and is found in extracts of the mandrake, belladonna, and henbane plants that were used to make flying ointments
The Morphine Rule benzene ring; a quaternary carbon (attached to 4 different things); CH2-CH2—group, attached to; a tertiary nitrogen (attached to 3 different things)
General building blocks of fats and oils triglycerides; molecules composed of a glycerol molecule and 3 fatty acids
Definition of a salt chemical compound formed from the reaction of an acid with a base, replacing hydrogen in an acid by a metal (NaCl); helps transmit nerve impulses (with Na+ ion); helps maintain moisture balance in cells; necessary for life
Definition of electrolyte salt ions in the body; and salt ions in some sports drinks like Gatorade
Definition of the gabelle tax imposed on salt
Characteristics of a refrigerant low boiling point, nontoxic, nonflammable, condenses to a liquid under pressure
Created by: mooandherman