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Chapter 31 Voet


TBIIB bind TBP, recruit Pol II and TFIIF
σ recognize promoter sequence
α recognize promoter sequence (UP element)
β catalytic domain
β' DNA binding domain
σ factors used for the rapid scanning of DNA for promoters
Sigma factor release occurs after transcription initiation
In bacteria, the promoter region is _ bp 5' to splice site 40
Open complex enzyme melts DNA at -10 region
Open complex formation Conformational change in sigma guides the template strand to the active site tunnel
DOes bacteria transcription require a primer in bacteria? No
What bacterial transcription begins with coupling of 2 NTPs
Promoter escape transition between initiation and elongation
Stages of bacterial initiation with aborted transcripts open complex formation and promoter escape
Passive processes of DNA elongation unwinding and re-annealing
Short region at the active site of elongation DNA:RNA hybrid
Rho-independent terminations structure dyad symmetry, string of >6A's in DNA
Rho-independent termination RNA secondary structure (G-C hairpin loop) followed by run of Us. Mechanical stresses causes rU-dA bonds to break and pull ply-U out of active site. DNA: RNA contact is reduced and transcription terminated
Incorporation of these decrease termination I or 5 BrU
Dyad symmetr yin rho depednent terminators caues RNA polymerase to pause, also acts as barrier to nucleses
Rho is this kind of enzyme helicase
Rho can unwind these double helices RNA:DNA, RNA:RNA
How Rho moves Hydrolyze NTP to propel itself along RNA 5 to 3 until it catches RNAP
Rho protein has how many identical subunits 6
Rho is an ATP-_helicase dependent
RNAPI in nuclei, synthesizes precursors to most rRNA. Species-specific promoter recognition
RNAP II In nucleoplasm, sytnhesize mRNA precursors. Depends on transcription factors
TATA (-25) helps determine start site
CCAAT (-70--90) Increases rate of transcription initiation
GGGCGG housekeeping genes, increase rate of initiation
ENhancers work at distance to increase RNAP II
RNAP III nucleoplasm, synthesize precursors of 5S rRNAs, tRNAs, other small nuclear and cystolic RNAs
Organelle polymerase chloroplast and mitochondrial, similar to RNA polymerases
SWI,SNF,NURF proteins Remodel chromatin by mvoing nucleosomes and control transcriptional activity
Intercalating agents- planar aromatic rings that fit in between base pairs (usually GC. They block both DNA and RNA synthesis. Daunomycin, Adriamycin, Actinomycin D, EtBr, Proflavin
Amatoxins poison in mushroom
α-amanitin inhibits Pol II and III
Rifamycin only inhibit prokaryotic polymerases. They bind pol and block elongation from second to third nuc. Does not block initiation or later elongation if added later. This indicates that there is a conformational difference here.
Cordycepin- 3’deoxyadenosine incorporated into growing chain and causes termination. Indicated that elongation is 5’ to 3’.
repressors block RNAP initiation
Activators turn on expression
Attenuators couple transcription and translation
Created by: ScarlettRose