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Worsham Chem Q3

Aldehydes, Ketones, Acids & Esters

General Formula for Aldehydes RCHO
General Formula for Ketones RCOR
General Formula for Carboxylic Acids RCOOH
General Formula for Esters RCOOR'
What is the functional group in an Aldehyde and where is it located? One or more CARBONYL groups (-CHO) are located at the END of the carbon chain.
What is the functional group in a Ketone and where is it located? The CARBONYL group (C=O) is located in the WITHIN of the carbon chain-NOT at the end.
What is the functional group in a Carboxylic Acid? The CARBOXYL group (-COOH)
Esters are produced by the reaction of an _____?______ with an _____?_____. Esters are produced by the reaction of an ORGANIC ACID with an ALCOHOL. ex: RCOOH(carboxylic acid)+ ROH(alcohol)= RCOOR'(ester)+ water (water removed=dehydration)
What is an organic compound containing two aldehyde (-CHO) radicals called? A Dialdehyde
Name three examples of Aldehydes. 1. Methanal (formaldehyde; HCHO) 2. Ethanal (acetaldehyde) 3. Benzaldehyde
Aldehydes are formed by the ______?______ of _______?________. Aldehydes are formed by the OXIDATION of A PRIMARY ALCOHOL.
How do we name Aldehydes? 1. Start w/the parent hydrocarbon -e (Methane-e=Methan) 2. Add -al (Methan+al=Methanal)
Name two examples of Dialdehydes. 1. Glyoxal (simplest. 2 carbonyl groups bonded together) 2. Glutaraldehyde (excellent germicide; Cold/Liquid sterilizing agent)
What is Formalin? Formaldehyde gas dissolved in water at 37% by weight and 40% by volume.
What does HCHO form when it polymerizes? Paraformaldehyde or solid formaldehyde. METHANOL slows polymerization. Polymerization occurs when a bottle of arterial is exposed to cold temps, has expired shelf life, the pH is less than 6.5, etc. Shouldn't embalm with this!
Name an example of a Ketone. Propanone (acetone; dimethyl ketone). Dissolves sticky stuff on skin or fingernails.
Ketones are formed by the ______?_______ of a _____________?____________. Ketones are formed by the OXIDATION of a SECONDARY ALCOHOL.
How do we name Ketones with two different radical (R) groups? Ketone general formula = RCOR. Put them in alphabetical order and put "Ketone" on the end. Ex: Ethyl group (R) + C=O + Methyl group (R) would be named ethylmethylketone.
Of Aldehydes, Ketones, Carboxylic Acids and Ethers, which 2 are neutralization products in an arterial fluid? Carboxylic Acids & Esters.
Give three examples of salts used in arterial solutions that act as anticoagulants/sequestering/chelating agents for the calcium in hard water. 1. Oxylates 2. Citrates 3. EDTA (ethylenediaminetetrasodiumacetate)
Give two examples of Carboxylic Acids. 1. Methanoic Acid (formic acid) 2. Ethanoic acid (acetic acid; vinegar)
Explain the process of how an Alkane oxidizes to become a Carboxylic Acid. An Alkane oxidizes to become an Alcohol, which oxidizes to become an Aldehyde, which oxidizes to become a Carboxylic Acid. ex: Methane--O2-->Methanol--O2-->Methanal--O2--> Methanoic Acid.
Explain the processof how a reduction reaction can turn a Carboxylic Acid into an Alkane. A Carboxylic Acid reduces to an Aldehyde, which reduces to an Alcohol, which reduces to an Alkane. ex. Ethanoic Acid or Acetic Acid -->Ethanal-->Ethanol-->Ethane
An Ester is formed from an ____?____ and _______?________ by the removal of _____?_____. An Ester is formed from an ALCOHOL and ORGANIC (CARBOXYLIC) ACID by the removal of WATER.
Give two examples of Esters. 1. Ethyl acetate 2. Methyl salicylate (oil of wintergreen)
What do Esters usually end in? They usually end in -ate or -oate
Created by: Scrummy