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BioChem 1100.tri-c

Chapt. 5-Timberlake

Chemical Changes Occurs when atoms of initial substance rearrange to form new substances.
Mole 6.02 x 10 23 power - Avagadro's number
Actual yield Actual amount of product produced by a reaction
Coefficients Whole number placed in front of the formulas to balance the # of atoms/moles/elemnts of both sides of the equation
combination reaction A reaction in which reactants combine to form a single product
decomposition reaction A reaction in whcih a single reactant splits into two or more simpler substances
Double replacement reaction A reaction in which parts of the two different reactants exchange places
Excess Reactant The reactant that remains when the limiting reactant is used up in a reaction
formula unit The group of ions represented by the formula of an ionic compound Ex. 1 mole of CO2, a covalent compound, contains one mole of the "formula unit" or atoms of this compound
limiting reactant The reactant used up during a chemical reaction, which limits the amount of product that can form
Molar mass The mass in grams of 1 mole of an element--EQUAL NUMERICALLY to atomic mass
Oxidation The loss of electrons by a substance.
Biological oxidation May involve the addition of oxygen, or the loss of hydrogen
LEO the lion goes GER Loss of Electrons is Oxidation - Gain of Electrons is a reduction
Percent yield The ratio of the ACTUAL yield a reaction to the THEORETICAL yield possible for the reaction - multiplied by 100
REDUCTION (the contra-intuitive chemical definition) Means a GAIN of electrons
Single replacement reaction An element replaces a different element in a compoun
+ Delta sign (triangle) arrow -what do these mean in chemical equations + means "added to" Delta - means heat used - Arrow--means "reacts to form products"
Balance equations-4 steps 1. Write correct formulas for reactants and products 2. COUNT atoms of each element in reactants and products 3. Use coefficients to balance each element 4. CHECK equation
Write/count/co-efficients/CHECK Remember 4 steps for balancing equation: write correct formulas, COUNT atoms, BALANCE coefficients, Write a "check" -your atomic bank account is balanced!!!
How to Calculate # of Atoms/Moleculas in substance (4 steps) 1.) Determine given number of moles 2. Write plan to convert moles to atoms/molecules 3. Use Avogadro's number to write conversion factors 4 set up problem
MOLES under/over 4 steps 1. # moles 2. Moles under or over (moles under when needed to cance, over when needed to multiply 3. Use 6.02 x 10 - 23rd power 4. Do the math
Molar mass - where do you find? Atomic weight is numerically equal to molar mass Ex. Carbon has atomic weight of 12.01 g; therefore 6.02 x 10 23rd power of C atoms has a molar mass of 12.01 grams
Calculate molar mass of compound Don't "whack-a-mole" just "add-a-mole" 1 Determine # of grams/moles for each elements 2.write grams over moles 3. multiply # of grams times atomic weight 4. add together for molar mass/atomic weight of compound Ex. 1 mole NaF weighs 42 grams
Convert mass of a compound to moles Ex. 737 grams NaCL to moles Remember: molar mass of NaCl is the sum of the masses of each element; one mole NaCl =58.5 g 3. Multiply 737 g NaCl by 1 moleNaCl/58.5 g NaCL - answer: 12.6 moles NaCl
Law of Conservation of Mass There is no change in the total mass of substances reacting in a chemical mass
Mole-Mole Factors A ratio of the moles for any two substances in an equation
Percent Yield (equation) Percent Yield = actual yield(g)/theoretical yield (g) x 100
Percent Yield (cookie example) Theoretical yield: 60 cookies, but 12 cookies burned; therefore actual yield was 48 cookies. 48 cookies x100/divided by 60 cookies = 80% yield
Limiting Reactant In chemical reaction, limiting reactant gets used up first, stops reactant
Limiting Reactant Ex. peanut butter/bread Sandwiches--if you run out of bread, then it is "limiting factor"
Polyatomic Ions for Carbon (4) 1. Carbonate - CO3 (2- charge); 2. Hydrogen carbonate (or bicarbonate) HCO3 (- charge) 3. Cyanide CN(- charge) 4. acetate C2H3O2(- charge)
Sulfur Polyatomic Ions (4) Sulfate - SO4(2- charge) 2.Hydrogen sulfate (or bisulfate) HSO4(- charge) 3. Sulfite SO3(-2 charge) 4. HSO3(-charge)
Phosphorus Polyatomic Ions 1. Phosphate PO4(3-) 2. Hydrogen phosphate HPO4(-2) 3. DiHydrogen phosphate H2PO4(- charge) 4. Phosphite PO3(-3charge)
Chlorine Polyatomic Ions-2 Chlorate ClO3(-charge) 2. Chlorite ClO2(-charge)
Nitrogen Polyatomic Ions-3 1. Nitrate NO3(-charge) 2. Ammonium NH4(+ charge) 3. Nitrite NO2(- charge)
What is ending for most polyatomic ions ATE
What polyatomic ion has a positive charge? Ammonium - NH4(-charge)
Polyatomic ions - general characteristics Most a.) are nonmetals bonded to oxygen atoms 2. have -1,-2 or -3 charge because electrons were added to complete octets ONly one has a positive charge (ammonium NH4)
Polyatomic ion with sulfur (given by Dr. Belle) Thiocyanate SCN(-charge)
How to calculate charges for polyatomic ions formulas
Which is most electronegative element? Fluorine (in group 7A - 1 valence electron)
Do metals or nonmetals have higher electronegativity?? Nonmetals - because they have a greater attraction for electrons than metals.
Do larger or smaller atoms tend to have higher electronegativity values? SMALLER - because the valence electrons they share are closer to nuclei 2. this is why electronegativity values INCREASE on the top rows & going across the right side of the Periodic Table
Nonpolar covalent bond No-polar-bears so electrons free to share - equal sharing of electrons
Polar covalent bonds Polar bears are there-electrons afraid to share (stay away from smaller atom)
Data Observations based on measurements
Hypothesis States a possible interpretation of the observations - must be stated so that it can be proved by experiments
Hypothesis - Greek origin hypo "under-beneath-down" Gr. thesis "to put down" begining of argument in Classical Greek rhetoric
Experiments Tests that determine the validity of the hypothesis.
Theory When experiments can be repeated with consistent results that confirm the hypothesis, then it becomes a theory
meter-How many inches? 39.4 inches
centimeter - How many to a meter 100 cm = 1 m
How many meters to the inch? 2.54 cm = 1 inch
volume (def) the amount of space a substance Occupies
Liter (L) used to measure what? VOLUME (slightly larger than a quart)
1 Liter compares to what US measurement Quart - 1 liter = 1.06 qt.
Mass mass of an object is the measure of the quantity of material it contains - does not depend on gravity
Created by: walterina4327