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chapter 16

basic residential construction

QuestionAnswer
baseboards a board around the bottom of a wall perpendicular to the floor; covers gap b/w the floor and wall; decorative
basement story-high space below the first floor; floor is usually concrete slab
British Thermal Unit (BTU) A measure of heat used in rating the capacity of heating and cooling systems. (BTU)
Building Codes NC requirements as to construction standards, with the primary purpose being safety.
celling joists attached to the top plate of a wall and carry the weight of the roof
Certificate of Occupancy Issued upon the satisfactory inspection of a structure; building is fit for occupancy and there are no building code violations
crawl space the space between the ground surface and the first floor; frequently found in homes w/o basements that are not built on a slab foundation
eave the overhand of a sloping roof that extends beyond the walls of the house.
fascia board a flat strip of wood or metal that encloses the ends of the rafters; gutters are usually attached to it.
floor joists a horizontal board laid on edge, resting on the beams that provide the main support for the floor.
footings a concrete support under a foundation, chimney. or column that usually rests on solid ground and is wider than the structure being supported
foundation wall the masonry or concrete wall below ground level that serves as the main support for the frame structure; form the side walls of the basement or crawlspace.
frame the wooden skeleton of the house consisting of the floors, walls, ceilings, and roof
frieze board a wooden board fastened at the top of the exterior wall under the eave soffit to prevent penetration of weather elements
girder a heavy wooden or steel beam supporting the floor joists and providing the main horizontal support for the floor
header the extra thick framing over doors and windows to bear the weight of the building above the opening
HVAC an acronym for heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning.
insulation pieces of plasterboard, asbestos sheeting, compressed wood-wool, fiberboard, or other material placed between walls and ceilings to protect the interior from heat loss.
pier a column, usually of masonry block or steel-reinforced concrete; bears wall weight.
pitch the slope of a roof measured as the vertical distance in inches (rise) divided by the horizontal distance in feet (run)
rafter one of a series of sloping beams that extends from the center ridge board to an exterior wall and provides the main support for the roof.
ridge board a heavy horizontal board, set on edge at the apex of the roof, to which the rafters are attached
roofing felt sheets of flat, heavy material place on top of the roof boards to insulate and water proof the roof
R-value the insulation value of materials
sheathing insulating material that is applied to the wall framing; then siding is applied on top of it
siding boards nailed horizontally to the vertical studs, with or without intervening sheathing, to form the exposed surface of the outside walls of the building; can be made of wood, metal, or masonry sheets.
sill the lowest horizontal member of the house frame; also on a window or door
slab a flat, horizontal reinforced concrete area, usually the interior floor of a building but also an exterior or a roof area
soffit the external underside of the eave; usually contains ventilation for the attic/roof
sole plate the bottom of the wall frame that connects the studs to the flooring
stud the vertical members in the wall framing; usually placed 16-24 inches apart and serve as main support for the roof and/or the story above
subfloor boards or plywood sheets nailed directly to the floor joists; made of rough boards
top plate the top part of the wall framing that connects the stud to the ceiling framing
Created by: whitwill