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F332 definitions

AS chemistry (Salters) definitions for unit F332

Ionisation enthalpy “the energy needed to remove one mole of electrons from one mole of gaseous atoms to make one mole of gaseous ions – e.g. Na(g) → Na+(g) + e-
Hydrolysis reaction with water or reaction with OH- (to make alcohols)
Nucleophile “a molecule or negatively charged ion with a lone pair of electrons that it can donate to a positively charged atom to form a covalent bond”
Enthalpy profile “a plot of reaction progress against enthalpy”
Activation enthalpy “the minimum kinetic energy required by colliding particles before reaction will occur”
Catalyst “a substance which speeds up a reaction but can be recovered chemically unchanged at the end. It works by providing an alternative pathway of lower activation enthalpy”
Homogeneous “when reactants and catalysts are in the same physical state”
Heterogeneous “when reactants and catalysts are in different physical states”
Dynamic equilibrium “a reaction when the forward and back reactions are occurring at the same rate. The concentrations of the products and reactants remains constant and it occurs in a closed system”
Le Chatelier’s principle “if a system is at equilibrium and a change is made in any of the conditions, then the system responds to counteract the change”
Homolytic bond fission “forms radicals”
Heterolytic bond fission forms ions
Elimination reaction “a small molecule is removed from a larger one leaving an unsaturated molecule”
Addition polymerisation “where 2 or more molecules react to form a single larger one”
Addition reaction “where 2 or more molecules react to form a single larger one”
Electrophile “a positively charged ion or a molecule with a partial positive charge that will be attracted to a negatively charged region and react by accepting a lone pair of electrons to form a covalent bond
Carbocation positively charged carbon atom
Substitution reaction when one functional group on an organic molecule is substituted for another one.
Thermoplastic a polymer which can be repeatedly heated and reshaped
Thermoset polymers which contain extensive crosslinking which prevents remoulding even when heated
Co-polymer “when more than one monomer is used during an addition polymerisation”
Electronegativity “the attraction of an atom for a pair of electrons in a covalent bond”
Radical a chemical with an unpaired electron
Created by: jmccreary