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CH 18, 24

In the Demonstration with KMno4 what happened? It sat heating up then took off sparking purple flames
Why did the reaction from the demonstration occur after a while? Because the reaction only occurs at a certain temperature as the temp goes up so does the reaction
In the demonstration it was a combination of what? kinetics and thermodynamics
How do firefights do a controlled burn? inject ping pong balls with KMnO4 the inject glisserin so the reaction won't occur until it hits the ground.
What is potential measured in? volts
What happens to the oxidation number when something is reduced? The oxidation number goes down.
What happens agent being oxidized? oxidation number goes up
What is the oxidization number? the number of electrons on the atom minus the number of electrons assigned
What are some common reducing agent? Carbon and H2
What are some common oxidizing agents? O, Cl,NaClO and H2O2
How do plants reduce carbon? Plants use a photon from the sun
Why can't CO2 be reduced any further? It is already oxidized to its lowest state.
Deep in ocean vents what is the source of energy? H2S
What can oxidize H2S? Bacteria which enables tube worms to flourish
What can some other bacteria live off of? CH4 and oil
In caves what lives off of H2S? Snotties
What are the steps to balancing a redox reaction? 1 balance everything except H and O 2 Balance O with H2O 3 balance H with H+ 4 balance charge with electrons 5 add to get rid of electrons 6 if basic add OH- to get rid of H+
What are the two types of cells? Voltaic and Electrolytic
Which one is spontaneous? Voltaic
Which one is nonspontaneous? Electrolytic
Car batteries first turn on is an example of? Voltaic cell
When recharging a battery is an example of? electrolytic
How does one write a cells reaction in short hand notation? Anode on left single line in between phase changes then double line for salt bridge and then phase change and cathode on right
What must E be for the reaction to be spontaneous? E must be greater then 0
Does E0, E, deltaG0 change with temperature? E0-no delta G0-no E changes with temperature
What must delta G be for the reaction to be spontaneous? less then 0
What is the E0 for a standard hydrogen electrode? E0 = 0 at all temperatures
What are some insulating unions? Iron and Copper
when copper and Iron touch they create a ... battery
What is an Insulating Union used for? keeps iron from coroiding
When engine blocks where made from Aluminum and the water pumps where made from cast iron what would happen? Holes would form in the water pumps
When one times an equilbirium by two what happens A to B becomes 2A to 2B to delta s, delta H delta G, K and E S, H, G= 2S, 2H, 2G K=Ksquared E=E
What kills you when electrocuted? current not voltage
What does an Amp equal? Coul/s
What does a J equal? Coul-V
what does a watt equal? amp-V
So RT/(nF)equals? V
At equilibrium E equals what and Q equals wwhat? E=0 Q=K
Why doesn't E change? Because it is equivalent tto the height of the dam. And when you times it by two the coeffinent crosses out with the number of electrons
As temperature goes down what happens to E? E goes up
In a cold battery this would mean the the volts are higher why doesn't the battery start? the car needs power when the temperature drops the amps drop because amp is a rate function dependent on temperature so the chemical reactions are slower.
In a dead battery why are there no amps? because the concentration are very low
What is an example of electrolysis? silver plating
In silver plating why is the V low? Because V does not matter the current is what matters.
Why does electrolysis need a fast current? Because the process would take a long long time without a fast current,7.
What is the most common battery? lead acid battery
Why is the freezing point in some batteries higher? dus to mare solids
Why won't motorcycle batteries start a truck when they are the same voltage? dues to not enough power or Amps
how does one get a 12V battery? by putting six cells in a series
what is battery rate? Amp-Hrs
what increases the amount of amps? surface area
What happens when there is too much surface area? the battery become too spongy and falls apart
What is oxidized and reduced in car batteries? Lead
What is the difference in D, C, A, AA, AAA batteries even though they have the same power, current and voltage? The larger batteries have more energy
Lead is heavy so this means? low power density
Why does Li have more energy per kg? because it does not weigh as much as lead does
Where are the most deposits of Li? Bolivia and Afghanistan
Why don't aluminum cans rust? because when Al reacts with O it forms AlO which forms a coating around the Al preventing rust
Where are fuels cells used today and why? Space ships due to cost
Why are fuel cells so great? One just needs to put fuel in to get products out
What would happen if we putt fuel cells in cars? It would eliminate the engine, and other stuff enabling th car to be 1/3 of its weight
H2 is how many times more efficient in a fuel cell then burning it? 3x
What is corrosion? unwanted oxidation
Where does rust form in turns of where it is oxidized? In a different place
What should the red canyon be called in Wyoming since it was named wrong? Ferric instead of Ferrous
Why are barns red? because red pigment is the cheapest pigment to make
What is in red paint? FeO2
What is used to stop rust? Soap, sacrificial Anodes and coatings
Why doesn't steel wool rust since it has a higher surface area? Because soap has a higher pH so no rust because the equation shifts to the left
how do sacrificial anodes work? They force iron to be a cathode so Iron will no oxidize
What are some examples of sacrificial anodes? Zn and Mg
What is the advantage of using a SA to a coating? A coating needs to cover the whole area of iron and if it is scratched the iron will rust the SA just needs to be touching a prat of the iron to protect the whole area
Why doesn't stainless steal rust? it contains Cr and when this is oxidized it forms a coating to protect the iron
how is the statue of liberty anatomically incorrect? The arm is on top of the shoulder so the shoulder is dislocated to be in this position
Why did the statue of liberty had to be rebuilt? Because it was originally made with iron and copper which corroids when in contact with each other
Complex ion A metal ion surrounded by 2 or more coordinate divalent bonds with ligands. Set off by [square brackets].
Ligand An electron-rich group with nonbonded pairs of electrons. Inside the square backets.
Coordination compound A neutral compound that contains a complex ion. Coordinate covalent bond
Coordinate covalent bond A bond in which both bonding electrons come from the same atom.
Coordination number The number of coordinate covalent bonds on the metal ion.
Bidentate ligand A ligand that attaches twice to the metal ion.
Chelating agent Synonymous with polydentate ligand.
Chelate A complex ion containing a chelating agent.
What are the three lignads we need to know? Oxalate, Ethylenediamine and Edta
How many times does Oxalate attaches to a metal? Twice
How many times does Ethylenediamine attached to a metal? Twice and has no charge
How many times does Edta attaches to a metal and has what charge? 6, 4- charges
What is Edta used in? treatment for metal poisoning
Where is it found it? food because food contains metals which it catalishes too
In history what country needed Edta to treat for Plutonium poisoning? Russia
how did they treat iodinthe e radiation? by making the Russions eat lots of Iodine to flush the radiation out of their Thyroids to prevent Thyroid cancer
Where else is Edta found in and why? Soap because a metal + soap = a solid
In hemoglobin what happens to the K when Mg is in place instead of Fe? K= 200x better
What reduces visible light and how? Choraphyll in takes 2 photons to move one electron
ion + chelating agent = chelate ∆S =?, ∆H =? ∆S < 0, ∆H < 0
What is the geomentry of a molecule with a coordinate # =2, coordinate #=4 and Coordinate # = 6 Coor. # 2, linear Coor. # 4 tetrahedral unless 8 d electrons – square planar Coor. # 6 octahedral
what is the crystal field theory? Electrons of the ligands create a “field” at the 6 coordinate axes
how do emerables and diamonds get their colors? due to the splitting crystal field energy the distance between the ligand fields field the crystal its color?
What are the colors for Cu and Mg? Cu= blue and Mg =purple
What does the crystal field splitting depend on? the metal ion ligands
why do organic compounds have color? congigation of bonds
Why do inorganic compounds have color? splitting of d orbitals
What is a strong field and low spin? delta is large few unpaired electrons
What is a weak field and high spin? delta is small and lots of unpaired electrons
Created by: sfitzpatrick