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Nuclear Chemistry Vc

QuestionAnswer
a proton or neutron nucleon
the general term for any isotope of any element; another term for an atom that is identified by the number of protons and neutrons in its nucleus nuclide
the difference between the mass of an atom and the sum of the masses of its protons, neutrons, and electrons mass defect
the energy released when a nucleus is formed from nucleons nuclear binding energy
nucleons exist in different energy levels, or shells, in the nucleus nuclear shell models
the numbers of nucleons that represent completed nuclear energy levels (2,8,20,28,50,82, and 126) magic numbers
a reaction that affects the nucleus of an atom nuclear reaction
a chnage in the identity of a nucleus as a result of a change in the number of its protons transmutation
the spontaneous disntegration of a nucleus into a slightly lighter and more stable nucleus, accompanied by emission of particles, electromagnetic radiation, or both radioactive decay
the particles or electromagnetic radiation emitted from the nucleus during radioactive decay nuclear radiation
an unstable nucleus that undergoes radioactive decay radioactive nuclide
two protons and two neutrons bound together and emitted from the nucleus during some kinds of radioactive decay alpha particle
an electron emitted from the nucleus during some kinds of radioactive dacay beta particle
a particle that has the same mass as an electron but that has a postive charge, and is emitted from the nucleus during some kinds of radioactive decay positron
the process in which an inner orbital electron is captured by the nucleus of its own atom electron capture
a high energy electromagnetic wave emitted from a nucleus as it changes from an excited state to a ground energy state gamma ray
the time required for half the atoms of a radioactive nuclide to decay half life
a series of radioactive nuclides produced by successive radioactive decay until a stable nuclide is reached decay series
the heaviest nuclide of each decay series parent nuclide
a nuclide produced by the decay of a parent nuclide daughter nuclide
bombardment of stable nuclei with charged and uncharged particles artificial transmutation
an element with more than 92 protons in its nucleus transuranium element
a unit used to measure nuclear radiation; equal to the amount of radiation that produces 2 X 10^-9 ion pairs when it passes through 1cm^3 of dry air roentgen
the quantity of ionizing radiation that does as much damage to human tissue as is done by 1 roentgen of high voltage Xrays rem
a device used that uses exposure of film to measure the approximate radiation exposure of people working with radiation film badge
an instrument taht detects radiation by counting electric pulses carried by gas ionized by radiation Geiger-Muller counter
an instrument that converts scintillating ligth to an electric signal for detecting radiation scintillation counter
the process by which the approximate age of an object is determined based on the amount of certain radioactive nuclides present radioactive dating
a radioactive atom that is incorporated into a substance so that movement of the substance can be followed by a radiation detector radioactive tracer
a process in which a very heavy nucleus splits into more stable nuclei of intermediate mass nuclear fission
the combining of light mass nuclei to form a heavier, more stable nucleus nuclear fusion
a reactio in which the material that starts the reaction is also one of the products and can start another reaction chain reaction
the minimum amount of nuclide that provides the number of neutrons needed to sustain a chain reaction critical mass
a device that uses controlled fission chain reactions to produce energy or radioactive nuclides nuclear reactor
a facility that uses heat from nucleus reactors to produce electrical energy nuclear power plant
radiation-absorbing material that is used to decrease radiation exposure from nuclear reactors, especially gamma rays shielding
a neutron-absorbing rod taht elps control a nuclear reaction by limiting the number of free neutrons control rod
a material used to slow down the fast neutrons produced by fission moderator
Created by: CobbCa