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Chapter 17 Lipids

Types of lipids fatty acids and steriods
types of steroids cholesterol, bile salts, steroid hormones
essential fatty acids linoleic acid, linolenic acid, arachidonic acid
what is an essential fatty acid? Polyunsaturated fatty acids that the body cannot synthesize enough of, on its own.
Boiling point of saturated fatty acids Higher because the fatty acids fit close together in a regular pattern
Boiling point of monounsaturated fatty acids... Lower because the fatty acids have a kink (cis bond) that makes them not fit as closely together.
Boiling point of polyunsaturated fatty acids... Lowest because the fatty acids have multiple kinks (cis bonds) that make them not fit as closely together.
Solubility of saturated fatty acids... Least soluble because the chains fit together very closely (solids at room temperature)
Solubility of monounsaturated fatty acids... More soluble because the chains fit less closely together due to one double bond (liquids at room temperature)
Solubility of polyunsaturated fatty acids... Most soluble because the chains don't fit very closely together at all due to multiple double bonds (liquids at room temperature)
Prostaglandins (Eicosaniods) Hormone-like substances Formed from arachidonic acid Create inflammation and pain, raise or lower blood pressure, stimulate contraction or relaxation of the uterus during child birth
Prostaglandin E Has a ketone group on carbon 9, and a hydroxyl group on carbon 11
Prostaglandin F Has 2 hydroxyl groups... one on carbon 9 the other on carbon 11
Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) Block production of prostaglandins from arachidonic acid decreasing pain, fever, and inflammation
Waxes ester of a saturated fatty acid and long-chain alcohol (each containing 14-30 carbons) Used for waterproofing
Triacylglycerol Function They are the major form of energy storage for animals
Fat A triacylglycerol that is solid at room temperature Usually comes from animal sources
Oil A triacylglycerol that is usually liquid at room temperature. Obtained from plant sources
Catalyst for hydrogenation Nickel catalyst
Oxidation of fats and oils produces... Short-chain fatty acids and aldehydes
Hydrolysis of triacylglycerols produces... Glycerol and 3 fatty acids
Catalyst of hydrolysis HCl, H2SO4, and lipases
Saponification fat or oil + strong base ==> glycerol +salts of fatty acids (soaps)
When NaOH is used in saponification... A solid soap is produced
When KOH or polyunsaturated oils are used in saponification... A softer, liquid soap is produced
Diester When a phosphoric acid forms an ester bond between itself and 2 hydroxyl groups of alcohols
Lecithins Glycerophopholipids containing choline
Cephalins Glycerophospholipids containing ethanolamine
Glycerophospholipids are found in... Brain and nerve tissues, egg yolks, wheat germ, and yeast Most abundant lipids in cell membranes
Polar "head" (hydrophillic) Ionized amine and phosphate portion
Nonpolar "tails" (hydrophobic) Two fatty acids attached to glycerol
Ceramide The -NH2 group of sphingosine is attached by an amide link to a fatty acid
Sphingomyelins The -OH of a ceramide forms a phosphate ester of choline
Function of sphingomyelins To increase the speed of nerve impulses and to insulate and protect the nerve cells Found in the white matter of myelin sheaths
Cerebroside Sphingolipids that have one monosaccharide forming a B-glycosidic bond with the -OH of the ceramide
Function of cerebrosides Present primarily in brain and myelin sheath Important to cellular recognition and tissue immunity on the surface of cell membranes
Ganglioside A cerebroside that contains two to seven monosaccharides
Function of ganglioside Found in neurons of the brain and on the surface of cell membranes where they act as receptors for hormones, viruses, and certain drugs
Steroids Compounds containing the steroid nucleus (3 cyclohexane rings and rings and one cyclopentane ring)
Cholesterol Is a sterol because it contains an oxygen atom as a hydroxy group on carbon 3.
The liver synthesizes cholesterol from... Fats, carbohydrates, and proteins There is no cholesterol in vegetable and plant products
Bile Salts Synthesized in the liver from cholesterol and stored in the gallbladder
Function of bile salts Breaking apart and emulsifying large globules of fat. Form larger surface areas for digestive enzymes.
Lipoproteins Spherical particles with an outer surface of polar proteins and glycerophospholipids that surround hundreds of nonpolar molecules of triacylglycerols and cholesteryl esters
Function of lipoproteins Form water-soluble complexes that can transport lipids through the blood stream.
Very Low Density Lipoproteins (VLDL) Cylomicrons Transport triacylglycerols, glycerophospholipids, and cholesterol to tissues for storage or to muscles for energy.
Low Density Lipoproteins (LDL) "Bad Cholesterol" Transport cholesterol to tissues to be used for the synthesis of cell membranes, steroid hormones, and bile salts. When levels get high LDLs deposit cholesterol in arteries causing plaque build-up.
High Density Lipoproteins (HDL) "Good Cholesterol" Remove excess cholesterol from tissues and carry it to the liver where it's eliminated. Excess HDL is carried to the liver and eliminated.
Adrenal Corticosteroids Aldosterone, Cortisone, Prednisone
Steroid Hormones Testosterone, Androsterone, Estrogen, Progeterone
Most of the glycerophopholipids in the lipid bilayer contain unsaturated fatty acids... There are kinks because of the cis bonds, making the glycerophospholipids not fit very closely together making cell membranes fluid-like
Function of cholesterol in cell membranes... Provide structure and decrease flexibility
Simple Diffusion Ions and molecules go from high concentration to low concentration. Examples... O2, H2O, urea
Facilitated Diffusion Ions and molecules use integral proteins to go from high concentration to low concentration. Used for speed. Examples... Cl-, glucose
Active Transport Ions and molecules go from low concentration to high concentration. Requires energy (ATP). Examples... Na+, K+, Ca++
Estrogen Aids in female sexual characteristics
Testosterone Aids in male sexual characteristics
Progesterone Prepares the uterus for a fertilized egg
Norethindrone Birth control pill
Recommended cholesterol Total ==> 200mg/dL. LDL ==> less than 130mg/dL. HDL==> greater than 40mg/dL.
Omega 6 is found in... Vegetables
Omega 3 is found in... Fish
Functions of lipids Structure, energy storage, chemical signals, protection, vitamins and pigments
Created by: sjh62617