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CEM 162 Flashcards

Final

Conproportionation a reaction in which the same element is both oxidized and reduced.
Thermodynamics determines whether the reaction will go (reactions that do go are called spontaneous), and if the reaction does go, how far it will go before the system reaches equilibrium.
Kinetics considers the rate of the reaction and the mechanism of the reaction (how the rearrangement of atoms in the reaction actually takes place)
Rate Determining Step the reaction that is slower than any of the other and which therefore determines the overall reaction rate.
Clock reaction reaction in which some visible change takes place in the reaction mixture when a certain point in the reaction is reached.
Reaction order the rate of reaction is proportional to the concentration of each reactant, with each concentration raised to the same power
Total reaction order the sum of the exponents on each concentration
First order reaction one in which all the concentration exponents add up to one
Second order reactions one in which the exponents add up to two
Method of initial rates method to find the rate equation and the reaction orders for the formaldehyde-bisulfite/sulfite reaction
Equilibrium when the system reaches a steady state in which the concentrations of the reactants and products no longer change with time. This also means that the forward and reverse directions occur at the same rate
Standard solution in which the concentration of the complex is known and to which other solutions might be compared.
Continuous variation When the concentrations of the reactants are varied systematically to find the concentrations of reactants that produce the most immense color.
Standardized when the concentration of a solution is measured by allowing it to react with a substance known to be pure.
Standard solution one whose concentration is accurately known
Primary standard a pure substance used to standardize a solution
Ammines Nickel-ammonia complexes
Coordinate bond the bond between the nitrogen atom of the ammonia molecule (the donor atom) and the nickel (II) ion.
Coordination number the number of donor atoms surrounding the metal ion
Coordinate covalent bond one in which one atom (the N in this case) donates both electrons of the shared pair.
Gravimetric factor allows an easy calculation of the mass of the nickel ammine complex necessary to produce the experimentally determined quantity of the Ni(DMG)2
Job’s Method of Continuous Variation the concentrations of the reactants (nickel (II) and ammonia) are varied systematically to find the relative concentrations of these reactants that produce the most immense color (and therefore the most product)
Anode where oxidation takes place
Cathode where reduction takes place
Ligand an ion or molecule that binds to a central metal atom to form a coordination complex.
Chelating Ligand this means that the Ligand has more than one donor atom from which the donation of a pair of electrons to the metal is possible. (i.e. oxalate ion)
Bidentate literally means two-toothed and indicates that the Ligand has two donor atoms available for coordination to the metal.
Stereoisomerism involves different arrangements of the same set of donor atoms in the coordination sphere of the metal ion.
Structural isomerism involves a different set of donor atoms within the coordination sphere of the metal ion.
Linkage isomerism involves a Ligand with more than one possible way of coordinating to the metal ion because the Ligand possesses more than one possible donor atom.
Ambidentate a Ligand that can coordinate through more than one donor atom.
Oxidation the loss of electrons by an element (which in creases its oxidation number)
Reduction the gain of electrons by an element (which decreases its oxidation number)
Created by: 1248240287