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Chemistry St Peters

Chemistry Development of the Periodic Table Questions

What was Newlands' law of octaves? The way John Newlands attempted to order the elements - he ordered them in a way that every eight element had similar properties.
Why did other scientists not accept Newlands law of octaves? Because the other seven elements in each group had different properties, in other words the pattern didn't work.
Who was the founder of the modern periodic table? Mendeleev
What was Mendeleev's idea that improved his table? Leaving gaps for elements which hadn't been discovered yet.
What evidence made Mendeleev's periodic table more widely accepted? When the missing elements were discovered and their properties matched the ones which Mendeleev had predicted for them.
Why do elements in a group in the periodic table have similar properties? Because they all have the same number of electrons in their highest occupied energy level.
Which is more reactive, lithium or caesium? Caesium
Which is more reactive, chlorine or bromine? Chlorine
Why do metals get more reactive going down a group? When metals react they lose electrons. Since the size of the atoms increases going down the group the electron/s in the highest energy level are further from the nucleus of the atom and are therefore less strongly attracted and are lost more easily.
Why are the Group 1 elements called 'alkali metals'? Because they produce an alkali/alkaline solution when they react with water. Because their hydroxides are alkalis.
Why is potassium more reactive than sodium? Potassium has more occupied energy levels than sodium, so the electron in its highest occupied energy level is less strongly attracted to the nucleus and is lost more easily.
Why do the halogens have low melting and boiling points? Because they have small molecules and there are only weak intermolecular forces acting between the molecules.
Why do halogens form both ionic and covalent compounds? Their atoms need to gain one electron because they have 7 in their highest energy level/ outer orbit. They can gain this electron by sharing with another atom (covalent) or by forming a 1- ion (ionic).
Why is fluorine the most reactive halogen? Fluorine has the fewest number of occupied energy levels in its group and so the outer orbit/ highest energy level is closer to the nucleus and other electrons are more strongly attracted.
Where are the transition metals in the periodic table? Between Groups 2 and 3.
What feature of their electron structures gives transition metals their special properties? They have unfilled lower energy levels.
Created by: sallyfizz