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Webner's AP World

Key Terms AP WORLD

refers to complex society with traits such as cities, specialization of labor, status distinctions based on wealth, monumental building, etc civilization
learned patterns of action and expression culture
people who hunt and gather foragers
domestication of plants and animals and the change from a nomadic hunter-gatherer lifestyle to a settled farming society is known as___ Agricultural Revolution (Neolithic Revolution)
early river valley civilization between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers Mesopotamia
self-governing urban centers (as opposed to large territories governed by a central authority) city-states
Early legal code in Mesopotamia Hammurabi's Code
early step pyramids found in Mesopotamia ziggurats
The earliest civilization of South Asia was formed around the ___ river valley Indus
The longest lasting and most revered dynasty in Chinese history Zhou (ca. 1000-200 BC)
Chinese philosophy emphasizing duty, public service, hierarchy, and moral government Confucianism
Chinese political philosophy emphasizing wickedness of human nature and advocating for strict laws Legalism
Chinese philosophy urging people to accept the world as they find it, to avoid useless struggles, and to adhere to the "path" of nature Daoism (Taoism)
Early civilization located South of Egypt Nubia
Most influential early Mesoamerican civilization Olmec
Most impressive early South American civilization of the Andes Mountain region Chavin
common domesticated animal of the Andes llama
Western Asian civilization known for developing horse-drawn chariot technology and a technique for making tools and weapons of iron Hittites
Earliest European civilization to have complex political and social structures and advanced technologies like those in western Asia and northeaster Africa Minoan Crete
First advanced civilization in Greece Mycenaean
First western Asian empire located in Mesopotamia Assyrian Empire
belief in only one god monotheism
First civilization to develop a written alphabet Phoenicians
Early empire in Iran Persian empire
monotheistic religion practiced by Persian kings Zoroastrianism
Greek term for city-state polis
conflict between Greece and Persia in which Persia was ultimately defeated by an alliance of Greek city-states, including Sparta and Athens. It ultimately led to Athens' rise as a dominant power in Greece. Persian Wars
struggle for dominance between Athens and Sparta and their allies Peloponnesian War
Macedonian king who conquered lands from Greece east through Persia and into northern Africa, spreading Greek culture. Alexander "the Great"
period of influence of Greek rule from Greece through western Asia and northeastern Africa, characterized by long-distance trade, great cities, powerful rulers, development of culture, etc. Hellenistic Age
Before Rome became a large empire, it was a ____, in which civic officials were elected each year. republic
elite in Roman society patricians
majority of people in Roman society (non-elite) plebeians
The center of power in the Roman government, technically an advisory council to the kings. Roman Senate
Julius Caesar's grandnephew and heir, he ruled over Rome for 45 years, expanding the empire, and essentially changing it from a republic to an empire. Augustus (Octavian)
period of relative peace in the Roman empire, during which trade/commerce was expanded pax romana
Spread of the Latin language and Roman way of life--one of the most lasting consequences of the Roman empire Romanization
technology used to carry water from a source to an urban center developed by the Romans aqueduct
Eastern part of the Roman Empire, that lasted for centuries after Rome's decline Byzantine Empire
negative term for non-Christian polytheists pagan
The Chinese dynasty from ~200 BC to 220 BCE, credited for beginning the long history of imperial China (political and cultural unity and continuity that lasted until the 20th century) Han Dynasty
period from 1500 to 500 BC in India Vedic Age
religious texts that are our main source of information about early India and the "Vedic Age" Vedas
belief that living creatures will be reborn after death, depending on the deeds done in life. common in Hindu religion, with origins in the Vedic tradition reincarnation
deeds done during life that will lead a person to their next life--either better or worse, depending on the deeds. common in Hindu religion, with origins in the Vedic tradition karma
belief system that arose as a challenge to Vedic religious tradition, which emphasized extreme nonviolence, and even starvation in some who refused to eat any living thing Jainism
"The Enlightened One" Buddha
Religion that emphasizes the importance of living life in moderation, rejecting desire and suffering, and searching for spiritual truth through meditation and self-discipline, ultimately to reach the goal of nirvana. Arose in contrast to Vedic tradition. Buddhism
In response to challenges from both Jainism and Buddhism, the Vedic tradition evolved into ____. Hinduism
India's first centralized empire (~320-180 BC) Mauryan empire
Modeled after the Mauryan empire, although never controlled territories as extensive as the Mauryan. Gupta empire
term describing a way of maintaining power by 'persuading' others to follow its lead through splendor and beauty of the capital, dramatic ceremonies, and exciting cultural events theater-state
geographical peninsula zone in Southeast Asia Malay peninsula
first major Southeast Asian center, which flourished between the first and sixth centuries CE. Funan
long distance trade route linking lands of the Mediterranean with China, passing through Mesopotamia, Iran, and Central Asia Silk Road
Empire in Iran/western Asia (~200-600 CE), established Zoroastrianism as official state religion Sasanid empire
important invention allowing for greater stability of horse riding. invented in Central Asia stirrup
trade network linking Indian Ocean and South China Sea. traders in this network included Chinese, Malays, Indians, Persians, and Arabs Indian Ocean Maritime System
Long distance trade routes across the great desert of northern Africa Trans-Saharan caravan routes
Africa south of the Sahara desert Sub-saharan Africa
family of languages common throughout sub-Saharan Africa Bantu
Shi'ites and Sunnis Main religious division in Islam is between these two groups
City in the Arabian peninsula where Muhammad was born Mecca
Islamic prophet Muhammad
person who practices the religion of Islam Muslim
Islamic beliefs that include loyalty to only one god (Allah), prayer 5 times a day, fasting during holy month Ramadan, giving charity, and making a pilgrimage to Mecca 5 Pillars of Islam
holy book of Islam Quran (Koran)
Term for the early Islamic empires caliphates
Earliest Islamic empires (caliphates) Umayyad (~680 - 630) and Abbasid (~630-1250)
Early Turkish kingdom stretching from northern Afghanistan into Syria and Anatolia. They conquered the Byzantine empire. Suljuk Turks
successor to Muhammad as leader of Islam Abu Bakr
First in western Europe to bear the title "emperor" since the fall of the Roman Empire. His rule marked a shift of focus in Europe away from the Mediterranean toward the north and west. Charlemagne
Time period between the Greco-Roman civilization and the Renaissance Medieval or Middle Ages
name for the Eastern Roman Empire Byzantine Empire
split between the Latin Church (of western Europe) and the Orthodox Church (Eastern) resulting in 2 versions of Catholicism-- Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Great Schism
Greatest Byzantine architectural monument -- cathedral in Constantinople built by Justinian Hagia Sophia
Family of Frankish rulers that included Charlemagne Carolingian family
sea raiders from Scandinavia (northern Europe) Vikings
self sufficient farming estates during the middle ages manors
agricultural workers tied to the land serfs
system of land ownership in which kings and lords gave land to "vassals" in return for sworn military support. common during Middle Ages in Europe. feudalism
noble followers of kings that promised military support in return for land grants vassals
the office of the pope papacy
Loose confederation of Germanic kingdoms during the Middle Ages Holy Roman Empire
system of groups of monks or nuns living together in organized communities, often practicing celibacy (no sex), devotion to prayer, living apart from society monasticism
Early Russian kingdom (900-1200) characterized by Orthodox Christianity, Slavic language Kievan Russia
technology that emerged in western Europe during Middle Ages that allowed more efficient horse plowing for farming horse collar
series of religiously inspired Christian military campaigns against Muslims in the eastern Mediterranean (1095-1204). Had a huge impact on Europe because they led to exposure to Muslim culture and bringing back of new ideas, goods, and increase in trade. Crusades
Chinese empire (600-750) succeeding Han and Sui. Used Buddhism, built Grand Canal, produced fine goods like porcelain, etc. Tang Empire
Turkic group that took control over much of Inner Asia (600-900). They excelled as merchants and translators. Uighurs
Central Asian rival to Tang power in China. Alphabet and artistic styles derived from India, with influences from China and Islam as well. Known for strong Buddhist influences. Tibet
Chinese empire following the Tang. Historians consider it a premodern state and society because of many innovations, including gunpowder, advances in astronomy, development of the compass for long distance travel, movable type, etc. Song
Chinese ocean going ship junk
New interpretations of Confucianism neo-Confucianism
fast-maturing rice variety developed in Vietnam/SE Asia and brought to China. Improved Chinese rice farmers crop production champa rice
largest pre-Aztec American city, located about 30 miles NE of Mexico City Teotihuacan
Mesoamerican civilization of the Yucatan peninsula, and present-day Guatemala, Honduras, Belize Maya
Aztec capital Tenochtitlan
system of imposing taxes on conquered peoples to maintain power and to support urban center (used in Aztec civilization and others) tribute system
ancient culture of North American southwest Anasazi
ancient culture of North American eastern woodlands Mississippian
political system in which a territory as large as 10,000 people is ruled by a chief, a hereditary leader with both religious and non-religious responsibilities chiefdom
system of labor involving a rotational labor draft that organized workers to work on fields owned by the wealthy and powerful (used in Andean cultures) mit'a
Powerful Andean empire by 1400-1500. Culturally similar to earlier Andean civilizations. Known for extensive road system that connecting parts of the empire. Inca
Central Asian nomadic people who conquered much of Eurasia by 1300 Mongols
Mongol rule over China known as ____ empire Yuan
disease carried by rats from Asia to Europe, killing much of the population ~1300s bubonic plague
name for Russian autocratic ruler (like the Russian emperor) tsar / czar
Chinese empire after fall of Mongol Yuan empire (1368-1500). Known for producing high achievement in literature and the arts, and fine trade goods such as porcelain and silk. Ming
Chinese maritime explorer who voyaged throughout SE Asia, the Indian Ocean. Established commercial relations with the Middle East and served as a publicist showing off Chinese leader's wealth and power Zheng He
part of the earth near the equator, characterized by rainy and dry seasons tropics
alternating winds affecting the Indian Ocean region monsoons
Muslim traveler who kept extensive journals of his travels throughout the Islamic world during the 1300s Ibn Battuta
Centralized Indian empire created by Muslim invaders (1206-1526) Delhi Sultanate
West African empire founded by indigenous Muslims from 13th to 15th century. Famous for role in trans-Saharan gold trade Mali
Ruler of Mali known for his pilgrimage to Mecca to show off Mali's exceptional wealth Mansa Musa
Arabic ship dhow
name for culture group along east-African coast Swahili
African city (now in ruins) whose stone structures were built between 1250 and 1450, when it was a trading center and capital of a large state Great Zimbabwe
West African city that was a center of learning, home to a great library, and many Islamic scholars Timbuktu
another name for the bubonic plague that killed off a third of western Europeans Black Death
Association of trading cities and merchants in northern Europe during the late Middle Ages Hanseatic League
association of craft specialists such as silversmiths that regulated business practices and prices. common during the late middle ages and into the Renaissance guild
style of architecture (primarily cathedrals) characteristic of the late Middle Ages that featured flying buttresses, pointed arches, gargoyles, and giant stained glass windown Gothic architecture
Literally means "re-birth." Period following the Middle Ages, starting in the Mediterranean and spreading throughout western Europe, that saw a growth in learning, arts, and literature. Renaissance
mechanical device that revolutionized printing, leading to many more books being made and read. was perfected by Johann Gutenberg in the 1400s. printing press
well known Renaissance artists Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, Jan van Eyck
long conflict between king of France and his vassals from 1337-1453. it is a key example of the transformation in politics leading to more centralized power. Hundred Years War
Early Amerindians who settled the islands in the Caribbean Arawak
Portuguese prince who established schools to study navigation in the 1400s Prince Henry "the Navigator"
New type of ship -- small, fast, and maneuverable -- used by European sailers starting in the 1400s caravel
Nickname of the West African coast, became the headquarters of Portuguese trade in West Africa Gold Coast
First Portuguese explorer to round the tip of Africa and enter the Indian Ocean Bartolomeu Dias
Portuguese explorer who sailed around Africa and reached India in the late 1400s Vasco da Gama
Sailer sponsored by Spain, whose voyages established the existence of the "New World" Christopher Columbus
Imaginary line drawn down the middle of the Atlantic Ocean, which split the world between Spanish and Portuguese control--lands to west of line were reserved for Spain, while lands to the east of the line were reserved for Portugal Treaty of Tordesillas line
His voyage was first to circumnavigate (sail around) the world. Set the precedent for Spanish colonization of the Philippines Ferdinand Magellan
Portuguese trading post in China in the 1500s Macao
Conquistador who conquered the Aztecs in the 1520s Hernan Cortes
Aztec emperor at the time of Spanish arrival and subsequent conquest of the empire Moctezuma
spanish conquistador who conquered the Inca empire in the 1530s Francisco Pizarro
Inca emperor at the time of Spanish conquest Atahualpa
Movement of rejection of the Catholic Church, started in Europe by Martin Luther in early 1500s Protestant Reformation
The Intellectual movement in Europe, initially associated with planetary motion, that by the 17th century (1600s) had laid the groundwork for modern science Scientific Revolution
Intellectual movement in Europe associated with the belief that human reason could discover laws that governed social behavior Enlightenment
French term for the urban middle class bourgeoisie
Loose federation of mostly German states and principalities, headed by an emperor elected by the princes (962-1806) Holy Roman Empire
Conflict over royal versus Parliamentary rights in England. Led to a check in the power of the monarchy and England eventually becoming a constitutional monarchy English CIvil War
Palace of Louis XIV. Symbol of absolute power of the French monarch Versailles
Transfer of peoples, animals, plants, and diseases between the Old and New Worlds Columbian Exchange
administrative jurisdictions of Spanish and Portuguese colonies in teh Americas (the Spanish empire in the Americas was divided into ___) Viceroyalties
A grant of authority over a population of Amerindians in the Spanish colonies that provided the grant holder with a supply of cheap labor and payments by the Amerindians. The grantholder had to Christianize the Indians encomienda
system of labor under which 1/7 of adult male Amerindians were forced to work for 6 months each year in mines, farms, or factories mita
whites born in America to European parents and people of mixed ancestry creoles
Offspring of European and Amerindian parents mestizos
Offspring of European and African parents mulattos
system of labor where a young man or woman (from Europe) agrees to work for a period of time (4-7 years) in exchange for passage to the Americas indentured servitude
Amerindian leader of rebellion against Spanish rule and the mita labor system in 1780 Tupac Amaru II
The network of trading links after 1500 that moved goods, wealth, people, and cultures around the Atlantic Ocean Atlantic system
groups of private investors given monopolies over trade by the government in exchange for payment of annual fees (example: Dutch West India Company) chartered companies
small number of rich men who owned most of the slaves and most of the land in West Indian plantation colonies, and who therefore, had all of the power plantocracy
period of adjustment to a new environment that all enslaved Africans had to go through upon reaching the Americas seasoning
legal grant of freedom to an individual slave manumission
runaway slaves in the Caribbean maroons
economic policy adopted by European states to promote their citizens' overseas trade, while restricting them from trading with foreign merchants mercantilism
Part of the triangular trade in which slaves were transported across the Atlantic to the plantation colonies of the Americas Middle Passage
Successor to the Mali empire in West Africa, which drew its wealth from the trans-Saharan trade and was ruled by a Muslim dyansty Songhai
Islamic state founded after the fall of the Byzantine empire. It encompassed lands in the Middle East, North Africa, and Eastern Europe (lasted from 1453-1922) Ottoman Empire
Elite Ottoman soldiers, originally of slave origin Janissaries
Iranian empire (1502-1722) characterized by strong army and multi-lingual population Safavid Empire
Muslim state (1526-1857) exercising control over most of India in 16th and 17th centuries Mughal Empire
Indian religion started in the Punjab region of NW India. After Mughal emperor ordered beheading of Sikh guru in 1675, Sikh warriors mounted armed resistance to Mughal rule Sikhism
Japanese warlords daimyo
Japanese warriors samurai
Japanese military government that arose in 1603 after civil war, unifying Japan Tokugawa Shogunate
Successor to the Ming empire in China, established by the Manchus in the north. The last Chinese empire Qing
Russian tsar (1689-1725) who made major changes, attempting to "westernize" Russia Peter the Great
Leader of the Haitian Revolution Toussaint L'Ouverture
French colony in the Caribbean, now known as Haiti Saint Domingue
France's traditional national assembly with representatives of the 3 estates, or classes, in French society. Estates General
French revolutionary assembly (1789-91). Passed Declaration of RIghts of Man in 1789 National Assembly
Similar to the US Declaration of Independence, it was a French document that proclaimed natural rights such as liberty, property, security, free expression of ideas, equality before the law, etc Declaration of the Rights of Man
Most radical phase of the French Revolution, in which people accused of being enemies of the revolution were sentenced to death The Terror
Most radical political party in France during French Revolution Jacobins
Became emperor of France in 1804 Napoleon Bonaparte (Napoleon I)
meeting of European leaders after the defeat of Napoleon. Attempted to reestablish political order in Europe and maintain the traditional power of the monarchy. Conservative reaction to the French Revolution. Congress of Vienna
Movement that started in Paris to overthrow the king and create the 2nd French Republic. Reformers in other countries also demanded changes such as more rights. Revolutions of 1848
Transformation of the economy, environment, and society starting in England in the 18th century. Led to innovations in transportation, communication, and mechanization of factories Industrial Revolution
revolution in farming that provided more food for growing populations, based on acceptance of potato farming in Europe. Significant because it allowed the Industrial Revolution to occur agricultural revolution
making of many identical items by breaking the process into simple, repetitive tasks mass production
subdividing work into specialized and repetitive tasks that lower the cost of products division of labor
use of machines to do work that had previously been done by hand mechanization
recurrent swings from economic hard times to recovery and growth business cycles
"invisible hand" economic theory that states that the government should refrain from interfering in business, except to protect private property laissez faire
revolutionary leader of many Latin American independence movements Simon Bolivar
charismatic leaders who relied on their ability to persuade the masses rather than on the authority of constitutions and laws (example: Andrew Jackson of USA, Jose Antonio Paez of Venezuela) personalist leaders
name for a personalist leader in Latin America caudillo
men and women who wanted to outlaw slavery abolitionists
the modification of the language, customs, and behaviors of a group of people as a result of contact with people of another culture acculturation
meeting to discuss women's rights in 1848 that created a declaration declaring the equality of men and women Women's Rights Convention at Seneca Falls, New York (Seneca Falls Convention)
prosperous and industrialized nations v. nations dependent on exporting raw materials and low-wage industries developed v. underdeveloped
Leader of Egyptian modernization in the early 19th century. Ruled Egypt as an Ottoman governor Muahmmad Ali
Name for Indian troops hired by private companies for protection sepoys
Name for British rule over India British raj
The revolt of Indian soldiers in 1857 against certain practices that violated religious customs (based on controversy over opening gun cartridges greased with animal fat) Sepoy Rebellion
British name for native Australians Aborigines
"reorganization" - refers to a series of reforms in the Ottoman empire in the mid-1800s to move civil law away from control of religious elites Tanzimat
Conflict between the Russian and Ottoman empires fought over Russian expansion (1853-1856) Crimean War
Movement of young intellectuals to institute liberal reforms and build a feeling of national identity in the Ottoman empire in the second half of the 19th century Young Ottomans
Political doctrine advocating unity of all Slavic peoples Pan-Slavism
Intellectuals who opposed westernization, instead viewing peasant life, the Orthodox faith, and the tsar's absolute rule to be the proper bases of Russian civilization. Slavophiles
Failed attempt by army officers to take control of Russian government after death of Tsar Alexander in 1825. Decembrist revolt
War between Britain and China in mid 1800s that exposed the weaknesses of the Chinese army and showed the superiority of the British military. Ended with China being forced to open itself more widely to international trade Opium War
cities open to foreign residents that expanded after Opium War and Treaty of Nanking treaty ports
"unequal" treaty after the Opium war that allowed more open access to British traders in China Treaty of Nanking
Chinese civil war in mid-19th century that weakened the Qing government Taiping Rebellion
The man responsible for German unification Otto von Bismarck
Technologies associated with the 2nd Industrial Revolution steel, chemical industries, and electricity
Time period from late 19th to early 20th centuries characterized by rules of behavior surrounding the family and relations between men and women, with home seen as the domain of women while the the marketplace was strictly the domain of men VIctorian Age
The Victorian idea that men and women had clearly defined and distinct roles in society--men as "breadmakers" and women as in charge of domestic duties "separate spheres"
German writer and economic theorist who wrote the Communist Manifesto, which criticized capitalism and argued that history was a long series of conflicts between social classes Karl Marx
ideology developed by radical thinkers who questioned the idea of private property and argued in support of industrial workers against their employers Socialism
organizations formed by industrial workers to defend their interests in negotiations with employers labor unions
political philosophy that believed in the abolition of all governments anarchism
political ideology that stresses people's membership in a nation--a community defined by a common culture and history as well as by territory nationalism
middle class ideology that asserted the sovereignty of the people and demanded a constitutional government, a national parliament, and freedom of expression liberalism
These countries were the Great Powers of Europe (1871-1900) France, Great Britain (liberal powers) and Russia, Austria-Hungary (conservative powers)
Following the destruction of the Tokugawa Shogunate in Japan, this political program set Japan on the path of centralization, industrialization, and imperialism by copying western techniques Meiji Restoration
Historians' term for the late-19th and early-20th century wave of conquests by European powers, the US, and Japan New Imperialism / neo-imperialism
Sudden wave of conquests in Africa by European powers in the 1880s and 90s. "Scramble for Africa"
Conference called to set rules for the partition of Africa (1884-5) Berlin Conference
descendants of Dutch settlers in southern Africa Afrikaners
Statement issued by Britain's Foreign Secretary in 1917 favoring the establishment of a Jewish national homeland in Palestine Balfour Declaration
Radical Marxist political party founded by Vladimir Lenin in 1903. They seized power of Russia In 1917 during the Russian Revolution Bolsheviks (later Communist Party)
Leader of the Bolshevik (later Communist) Party in Russia that gained control of Russia after the revolution Vladimir Lenin
US President during WWI that wanted to stay out of conflict at first and after the war advocated for the creation of a peace keeping international organization Woodrow Wilson
World organization to protect peace and international cooperation. Formed after WWI League of Nations
Treaty reluctantly signed by Germany after WWI. It reduced the size of the German military, forced Germany to give up territory, and included a "guilt clause" that forced Germany to accept responsibility for the war and pay reparations Treaty of Versailles
Economic policy of Lenin during early years of USSR (Soviet Union) that encouraged the revival of the Soviet economy by allowing small private enterprises New Economic Policy (N.E.P)
System that allocated former German colonies and Ottoman possessions to the victorious powers after WWI, to be administered under the League of Nations supervision Mandate system
Leader of the Soviet Union in 1930s who industrialized the country but is remembered also for oppressive tactics Joseph Stalin
Economic plans devised by Stalin in order to rapidly industrialize the USSR 5 Year Plans
Labor camps in the Soviet Union where millions of people accused of counterrevolution were sent under Stalin's rule gulags
Leader of the Fascist Party in Italy Benito Mussolini
Political party that glorified warfare and the Italian nation. Used publicity and mass communications to gain support for the radical government Fascist Party
Leader of the Nazi Party in Germany Adolf Hitler
Chinese leader who was head of Guomindang party and leader of China from 1928-48. Fought against the Communists and Japanese invasions Chiang Kai-shek
Leader of Chinese Communist Party who led the Communists to victory over Guomingdang Party after WWII Mao Zedong
The 6000 mile flight of Chinese Communists led by Mao Zedong as they were being pursued by the Chinese army. Survivors of the journey formed the nucleus of the Communist movement that eventually took control of China The Long March
WWII battle that ended in German surrender and the shift of advantage on the Eastern Front to the Soviet Red Army Stalingrad
US Naval base attacked by Japanese planes that led to US joining the Allies in WWII Pearl Harbor
Japanese city where the United States dropped the first atomic bomb Hiroshima
Largest Nazi extermination camp Auschwitz
Name for the mass extermination of Jews by the Nazis that claimed some 6 million lives the Holocaust
Leader of the peasant rebellion in the Mexican Revolution Emiliano Zapata
Leader of the Indian independence movement Mahatma Gandhi
Organization dedicated to obtaining equal voting and civil rights for black inhabitants of South Africa African National Congress
Emperor of Ethiopia and symbol of African independence. He fought the Italian invasion in 1935. Haile Selassie
Movement founded in 1885 to demand greater Indian participation in government Indian National Congress
Political organization founded in India in 1906 to defend interests of India's Muslim minority All-India Muslim League
Leader of Mexican Revolution in the north Francisco "Pancho" Villa
flat, fertile land of Argentina pampas
Winston Churchill's term for the Cold War division between Soviet-dominated East and US-dominated West iron curtain
Ideological struggle between communism (USSR) and capitalism (USA) for world influence Cold War
military alliance between US and countries of western Europe NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization)
International organization founded in 1945 to promote world peace and cooperation. Successor to the League of Nations United Nations (UN)
Top group within the United Nations, made up of 5 permanent members (China, France, Great Britain, USA, & USSR) and 7 rotating members and possessing veto power over decisions made by the General Assembly Security Council
Agency of the UN that makes loans to countries for economic development, trade promotion, and debt consolidation World Bank
US program to support the reconstruction of western Europe after WWII Marshall Plan
NATO's Soviet counterpart Warsaw Pact
Offer of military aid to Turkey and Greece to help them resist Soviet military pressure Truman Doctrine
conflict that began with North Korea's invasion of South Korea and came to involve the UN allying with South Korea and China allying with North Korea Korean War
Conflict pitting North Vietnam and South VIetnamese communist guerrillas against the South VIetnamese government, aided after 1961 by the United States VIetnam War
Confrontation between the US and USSR over placement of nuclear missiles in Cuba Cuban Missile Crisis
Political and human rights agreement by the USSR and western European countries that was an attempt to relax the tensions of the Cold War Helsinki Accords
policy of racial separation in South Africa apartheid
Cuban dictator in power prior to the Cuban Revolution of 1959 Fulgencio Batista
Leader of the Cuban Revolution Fidel Castro
campaign in China ordered by Mao Zedong to purge the Communist Party of his opponents and instill revolutionary values in the younger generation Cultural Revolution
Leader of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) that opposes the state of Israel and often uses guerrilla tactics and acts of terrorism Yasir Arafat
Organization of oil-producing states formed to promote their interests in higher revenues OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries)
Site in Beijing where Chinese students and workers gathered to demand greater political openness in 1989. The demonstration was crushed by the Chinese military Tiananmen Square
Leader of the Iranian Islamic Revolution Ayatollah Khomeini
Democratically elected Chilean president in 1970 who was ousted by a military overthrow in part sponsored by the CIA Salvador Allende
revolutionary group in Nicaragua who nationalized properties owned by the elite and by US citizens Sandinistas
Leader of China after Mao Zedong who undertook economic reforms that relaxed state control over the economy, allowing some accumulation of wealth Deng Xiaoping
Nickname for rapidly developing nations including Taiwan, Hong Kong, Singapore, and South Korea Asian Tigers
"restructuring" policy of Mikhail Gorbachev that attempted to address economic problems by moving away from state planning and toward a more open economic system perestroika
economic, political, and cultural integration and interaction of all parts of the world globalization
International body established in 1995 to foster and bring order to international trade World Trade Organization (WTO)
1946 UN document binding signing nations to observing specified rights of all humans Universal Declaration of Human Rights
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