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# Physics P3 GSCE

### Cards for the Physics P3 GCSE 2012. COM = Centre of Mass

A square object is pushed towards the right, if the Centre Of Mass is to the left of the pivot, will it topple? No
How can the turning effect be increased (Moments) By making the instrument longer, or by increasing the size of the force
What is the equation of a moment Moment (Nm) = Force (N) x Perpendicular dist from pivot (M)
How is the centre of mass/gravity calculated For a symmetrical object, it is where the lines of symmetry meet, for an irregular shape, use a plumb line (http://bit.ly/HAALfA)
On a 2D share, how is the weight shown Draw a line from the centre of mass, vertically towards the ground
If an object, which is suspended, is still, what must be true The Centre of mass must be DIRECTLY underneath the point of suspension
If a suspended object isn’t still, what state is it in Non-Equilibrium
For an object at equilibrium, what is the equation Total Clockwise Moments about a point = Total Anti-Clockwise Moments about a point
A square object is pushed towards the right, if the Centre Of Mass is to the left of the pivot, will it topple No
A square object is pushed towards the right, if the Centre Of Mass is directly above the pivot, will it topple No, it will balance perfectly
A square object is pushed towards the right, if the Centre Of Mass is to the right of the pivot, will it topple Yes
How are things like tractors designed, so they don’t topple They have a wide base and a low COM
What is the COM The COM is the point at which the mass seems to act
What 3 things should be included when describing lens transformations – Is it real/imaginary – Is it inverted/the right way up – Enlarged/same/smaller
Learn Centripetal Force! Do it
What do the rays do for a concave mirror Reflect parallel off the PA and reflect, back through the focus, creating an image (Real)
What is the equation for magnification Image height/Object Height
What do the rays do for a convex lens One goes Parrallel to the PA, then reflects through the focus; another goes through the 1st focus, then reflects parallel to the PA creating a smaller image
Convex mirror http://www(dot)physicsclassroom(dot)com/class/refln/u13l4b4(dot)gif
What do the rays do for a concave lens http://hyperphysics(dot)phy-astr(dot)gsu(dot)edu/hbase/geoopt/imggo/ccv(dot)gif
What is the term for the height of the wave on a oscilloscope? The Amplitude
What is the term for the distance between each wave on an oscilloscope? The Frequency
How is the wavelength measured on an oscilloscope? From one peak to another, or one trough to another.
When a light ray is travelling into a higher density material (E.g. Water), after travelling through a lower density material (E.g. Air) what happens the the light ray? It bends towards the normal.
When a light ray leaves a higher density material (Water) and enters a lower density material (Air) what happens to the light ray? It bends away from the normal.
What is the angle of incidence? It is the angle at which a ray approaches a material, e.g. a light ray approaching a block of glass.
How is the angle of incidence measured? It is measure from the normal, or the perpendicular of the material.
What will a wave with a big amplitude but a low frequency sound like? It will be loud and low pitched.
What will a wave with a small amplitude and a low frequency sound like? It will be quiet and low.
What will a wave with a big amplitude and a high frequency sound like? It will be high pitched and loud.
What effect does the frequency have on a noise? It adjusts the pitch of it (High/Low)
What effect does the amplitude have on the noise? It changes the volume of the noise. (Loud/Quiet)
How does a transformer work? (3 Steps) - The Primary coil has an AC current - Which produces an EM field around the core. - The coils of the secondary coil cut this EM field, and induce a AC current.
What is the core of a transformer made of? (3 Things) (Soft Laminated) Iron NOT THE ORE OF IT! (Hematite)
What is the term for the turning effect of a force The Moment
The place where the mass of an object is concentrated is also known as what The Centre of Mass
If an object isn't turning, what must be true The total clockwise moment = total anti clockwise moment
What 3 things cause the centripetal force to increase The mass, radius or the speed of the body
All bodies attract each other with what force Gravity
As 2 bodies, what happens the the gravitational pull between them It increases
As 2 objects get further apart, what happens to the gravitational pull between them It decreases
What shape is the orbit of any planet An ellipse, with the sun at either end
What force allows satellites to work Gravity
If a planet is further away from the sun than the other, will the further planet have a slower/the same or faster orbit Slower
What kind of orbit are most satellites in Geostationary
What kind of orbit are most monitoring satellites in Low Polar orbit
How is the magnification of a lens calculated? With : Image Height/Object Height
What is the normal? It is a line that is perpendicular to the reflecting/refracting surface.
Does the Angle of Incidence = Angle of Reflection? Yes
Sound is caused by ___ ___ and travels as a ___. Sound is caused by MECHANICAL VIBRATIONS and travels as a WAVE.
What is the range that the human ear can hear? (Hz) 20 - 20,000 Hz
Can sound travel through a vacuum? No.
Does the waveform alter the quality of sound? Yes.
(NOT SURE) Why are converging lenses used in cameras? To make 2 rays converge onto the sensor, in order to create a focuses image.
Sound Waves can be R___ and R____. Sound Waves can be Reflected and Refracted.
Cleaning, Quality Control and Pre-Natal scanning are all examples of the use of what? Ultrasound.
When a conductor which is carrying a force is put in a magnetic field, what might happen? It might experience a force.
How can the size of the magnetic force be increased, in relation to the motor effect? The Strength of the magnetic field could be increased, or the size of the current could be increased.
Will the conductor experience a force if it is parallel to the magnetic field? No.
How can the direction of the force be revered, in relation tot eh motor effect? By changing the direction of: The current or the magnetic field
If an electrical conductor cuts the flux, what happens? A voltage is induced into the conductor.
If a magnet is moved into a coil of wire, what happens to the coil? Also, how can it be reversed? Also, if the magnet is still and the coil is moved, will it still work? A voltage is induced at the ends of the wire. To reverse this voltage you change the direction of movement or the polarity of the magnet. Yes.
To increase the Voltage induced by the generator effect, what must you do? (4 Options) 1)Increase the speed of the magnets' movement. 2)Increase the strength of the magnet. 3)Increase the number or coils on the wire. 4)Increase the area of the coil.
A step up transformer increases voltage or current? (Think of the national grid (_____ goes up (Onto the power lines) and then it goes back down again when it reaches the house/destination. The voltage is increased.
Try to describe how a transformer works. An AC current in the primary coil produces a changing magnetic field in the iron core and so the secondary coil cuts this magnetic flux. This induces an alternating voltage across the secondary coil.
In a step up transformer, is the voltage greater over the primary or secondary coil? The secondary.
Why are main sequence stars stable? The force from the nuclear fission counterbalances the force of gravity trying to make the star collapse. This carries in until they either become black dwarfs or go through supernova.
(NOT SURE) Why does the universe contain many different elements? They are all byproducts of nuclear fission, which happens in the core of a star. These are then dispersed when a supernova happens.
How do the first planets form? Gravitational attraction draws the dust together into ever increasing sized rocks, these then collide with other rocks in order to make planets.
Created by: DHSBBen