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Vocab. 13.1-13.2

QuestionAnswer
kinetic-molecular theory describes the behavior of gases in terms of particles in motion
elastic collision collision in which no kinetic energy is lost
Temperature a measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in a sample of matter.
Diffusion the term used to describe the movement of one material through another.
Graham’s law of effusion states that the rate of effusion for a gas is inversely proportional to the square root of its molar mass.
Pressure force per unit area
barometer an instrument used to measure atmospheric pressure
One pascal is equal to a force of one newton per square meter: 1 Pa  1 N/m2; measures pressure
One atmosphere is equal to 760 mm Hg or 760 torr or 101.3 kilopascals (kPa); measures atmospheric pressure
Dalton’s law of partial pressures states that the total pressure of a mixture of gases is equal to the sum of the pressures of all the gases in the mixture.
Dispersion forces weak forces that result from temporary shifts in the density of electrons in electron clouds.
dipole–dipole forces Attractions between oppositely charged regions of polar molecules
hydrogen bond a dipole–dipole attraction that occurs between molecules containing a hydrogen atom bonded to a small, highly electronegative atom with at least one lone electron pair.
amorphous solid one in which the particles are not arranged in a regular, repeating pattern.
boiling point temp. @ which vapor pressure of a liquid= atm pressure
condensation gas or vapor --> liquid
crystalline solid solid whose atoms, ions, molecules are arranged in geometric, orderly, 3D structure
deposition process by which gas or vapor --> solid (skips liq. phase)
evaporation liquid --> gas
freezing pt. temp. @ which liq. --> crystalline solid
melting pt. pt. @ which crystalline solid --> liq.
phase diagram graph of pressure vs. temp that shows in which phase a substance exists under diff. conditions of temp + pressure
sublimation solid --> gas (skips liq. phase)
surface tension energy required to increase surface area of a liq. by a given amt.
surfactants cmpnds. that lower surface tension of water; "surface active agents"
triple pt pt. on a phase diagram that represents the temp + pressure @ which all 3 phases of a substance can coexist
unit cell smallest arrangement of connected pts. that can be repeatedin 3 directions to form lattice of a crystalline solid
vaporization liquid --> a gas or vapor
vapor pressure pressure exerted by a vapor over a liq.
viscosity measure of the resistance of a liq. to flow
Created by: hcmeek