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Tests for - ions

Carbonate ions Add dilute hydrochloric acid to the substance to see if it fizzes. If it does, and the gas produced turns lime water milky, the substance contains these ions.
Halide ions Add dilute nitric acid, then silver nitrate solution. Chloride ions give a white precipitate, bromide ions a cream precipitate and iodide ions a yellow precipitate.
Sulfate ions Add dilute hydrochloric acid and thyen barium chloride solution. If a white precipitate forms, sulfate ions are present.
Nitrate ions Add a little aluminium powder and then add sodium hydroxide. Dently warm and test the gas given off with damp red litmus paper. If it turns blue, ammonia was produced and nitrate ions are present.
Created by: Rayrayy