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1st Law of Thermodynamics The energy of the universe is always constant
2nd Law of Thermodynamics The entropy of the universe is always increasing
specific heat capacity the amount of heat required to raise 1 gm of a substance by 1 degree Celsius or Kelvin
If you add 2.05 J to 1g ice (0 deg. C), what will the final temperature value be? (C of ice = 2.05) 0; because it takes a lot of energy to melt ice at a constant zero degree temperature
In a graph of temperature versus heat, what is the slope of the graph equivalent to? Specific heat capacity in that state
state function It's value depends only on the state of the system is in only not on the path it took to get there
Hess's Law since enthalpy(H) is a state function, then delta H of the reaction is the same regardless of the path or number of steps taken
How do you determine delta H of the reaction? Sum of delta H of the products - sum of delta H of the reactants
standard enthalpies of formation the enthalpy change for the formation of 1 mol of the substance from its elements in their standard states
What is the delta H(f) for pure elements in standard states? zero
Boltzman equation s=klog(W)
3rd Law of Thermodynamics S=0 at t=0K for a perfect crystal
Is S always increasing or decreasing with temperature for a given substance increasing
3 main rules for estimating S 1. larger moles have larger S 2. S gas > S liquid > S solid 3. For gas reactions: S is higher on the side with more moles of gas
delta S of surroundings = - (delta H)/T
What is delta G the maximum amount of energy available to do work
delta G = delta H - (t)(delta S)
If G < 0 the reaction is spontaneous from left to right
If G > 0 the reaction is not spontaneous from left to right
What is the Sponanuity of a -H, +S, -G product favored
What is the Sponanuity of a -H, -S, ?G Spontaneous at high temperatures
What is the Sponanuity of a +H, +S, ?G Spontaneous at low temperatures
What is the Sponanuity of a +H, -S, +G reactant favored
On a graph of G versus Temp., what does the positive half of the graph represent? What does the negative half represent? Positive: Not spontaneous Negative: Spontaneous
When Q = K(eq), what does delta G equal 0
if G > 0 what is K(eq) K(eq)<1
if G < 0 what is K(eq) K(eq)>1
Review calculations from 4/3
What is a calorimeter a device used to measure the heat released or absorbed by a physical or chemical process
Units of standard molar entropy J/molK
Created by: jkmccord11



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