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Chem Test #1

Matter classifications and important vocab

Matter anything that has mass and volume
Mass is a measure of the amount of matter in an object or substance
Energy the ability to induce change
Heat the transfer of energy between two objects at different temperatures (from hotter to colder)
Temperature is a measurement of the average kinetic E of the particles in an object or substance
Physical Properties are those that can be measured or observed without altering or changing the chemical composition of the object or substance
Chemical Properties are those that can only be measured or observed by inducing a change to the chemical composition of the object or substance
Quantitative Properties are those that have magnitude. Require a measuring instrument
Qualitative Properties are those that do not require a magnitude
Intensive Properties are those properties of an object or substance that are independant of sample size
Extensive Properties are properties that are dependant on the sample size
Chemistry the study of the structure, properties, and composition of substances and the changes they undergo.
Heterogeneous Matter matter that doesn't have a uniform composition. In which different phases can be observed.
Solutions uniform matter composed of two or more components, it is constant within the sample but is not representative of other solutions.
Pure Substances matter wiht a constant composition regardless of the sample. Can only be purified by chemical methods.
Compounds matter composed of two or more elements chemically bonded together. Can only be purified by chemical mehtods.
Elements purest form of matter. Cannot be purified further.
Physical Changes changes that do not alter the chemical composition of the object or substance.
Chemical Changes changes that alter the chemical compostition of the object or substance.
Evidence of a chemical reaction change in color, change in tmeperature, evolution of a gas, precipitation of a solid, production of light, change in odor.
The five chemical reactions synthesis, decomposition, hydrocarbon combustion, single displacement, double displacement.
Synthesis Reactions ones where the products are more complex than the starting materials.
Decomposition Reactions ones where the products are simpler than the starting materials.
Hydrocarbon combustion reactions ones when a C+H containing compound reacts with O to make CO2+H2O.
Single displacement reactions when an element reacts with a compound and displaces a like element tomake a new compound.
Double displacement reactions when two compounds react and ions are displaced amking two new compounds.
The Law of Conservation of Mass the total mass of all substances in a chemical or physical system remains constant throughout the process.
Law of Definite proportions the amss ratio in a given compound is constant.
Dalton's 4 postulates All matter composed of atoms. All atoms of the same element are identical and different from other elements. Compounds made of combinations of different elements in integer ratios. Atoms are not modified in chemical reactions, only rearranged.
Law of Multiple Proportions when two elements combine to make more than one compound, if the mass of one element is held constant the ratio of the mass of the other elementin the compounds will be a simple integer ratio.
Created by: coolitalian