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Chapters 17, 22, and 23

What is Change? Final state-initial state
What is a system? The thing of interest
What are the surroundings? Everything else in the universe
What kind of system has no change of matter or energy with the surroundings? Isolated system
What kind of system exchanges energy but not matter the the surroundings? Closed system
What kind system exchanges both energy and matter with the surrounding? Open System
What is spontaneous? It goes by itself without needing outside help.
Exothermic heat leaves the system
Endothermic heat enters the system
Standard State Pure substance at 1 atm and 298K
Reference state stablest form at 298K
q is... heat absorbed by the system
w is... work done on the system
What is the equation for the 1st law of thermodynamics? delta U=q+w
Enthalpy, H total energy of the system
What are the top three most common elements in the Earth's crust? Oxygen, Silicon and Aluminum
What are the top three most common elements in the atmosphere? Nitrogen, Oxygen, Argon
Most abundant elements in the universe? hydrogen, Helium
Most abundant element in seawater? Chloride and Sodium
Most abundant elements in the human body? Oxygen, Carbon and hydrogen
A rock that can be mined for a profit? Ore
Extraction of metal from ore such as mining, concentrating, reducing, and refining Metallurgy
What are three types of Pyrometallurgy? Calcination, roasting and Smelting
Which pyrometallurgy takes heat and a volatile product, usually CO2 or H2O leaves? Calcination
Which pyrometallurgy heats with oxygen to oxidize? roasting
Which pyrometallurgy melts plus reactions, with slag on top? Smelting
What are two types of hydrometallurgy? Floatation and Cyanide leaching
What is a electrometallurgy? Reduction
What is entrophy measure of dispersal of frequency
When delta S is greater than 0 the reaction is? Spontaneous
When delta H is less than 0 the reaction tends to be? Spontaneous
The reaction Ammonium Nitrate is spontaneous even though this reaction is endthermic why? Because the temperature and entrophy is greater then the enthalphy
Why is chemistry so precise about their results when there are so many possible outcomes that could happen? because there are avogoto's number of partical so many particles makes the bell curve practically straight meaning that any other out come would be a great surprise
What is the equations of free energy? delta G= delta H- T delta S
When delta G is less then 0 the reaction is spontaneous
When delta G is greater then 0 the reaction is? Reverse
When delta G is equal to zero the reaction is in equilibrium
What is delta G when H is - and S is - and the temperature is high? delta G is +
What is delta G when H is - and S is - and the temperature is low? delta G is -
Why do proteins denature at high heat? Because delta H is greater then 0 and delta S is greater then 0 so the high temperatures makes this process spontaneous.
What is delta S of the universe? greater then 0
In the Demonstration with the balloon what was felt when the balloon was stretched? relaxed? -heat -cool
Why does the balloon goes towards the relaxed form? Because rubber is less ordered in the relaxed stage. it takes enegry to make order such as in pulling the balloon. The balloon naturaly goes back to disorder.
Spontaneous goes from ___ to ___ order to disorder
What does the 0 mean on a delta H, delta S or delta G? means standard state of 1atm or 1M
Delta H is in... Delta G is in... Delta S is in... -Kj -Kj -J
What is the second law of Kelvin? it is impossible in a cyclic process to convert heat into work without giving heat to a cold reservoir.
What are two examples of the second of Kelvin? Car engines and Steam turbines
What does the car do for energy? What adsorbs the heat? Internal combustion Radiator
Steam turbines create ...where is the heat adsorbed? Electricity River and lake
What can power plants do to the environment? They evaporate so much water that they can change the weather.
What does the water do for the power plants? gets rib of the heat
what is the second law of Clausis? It is impossible in a cyclic process to move heat to a hot to a cold without doing work?
What is an example the law of Clausis? A refrigerator
What happens to the room temperature when the refrigerator door is left open the room warms up because the compressor is working harder to compinsate
Why aren't the Temperatures the same in reactions of free energy Because delta H and delta S are functions of T but we don't calculate as such.
What is a function for S S= k*ln(W)
What is another equation for delta G using Q? delta G= delta G 0 +R*T* ln(Q)
If the system is at equilibrium delta G=... and Q=... 0 K
what does delta G 0 =? -R*T*lnK
If delta G 0 is less then 0 at equilibrium then K is____ and what is favored? K is greater then 1 products favored
In Case one delta G 0 is less then one K is greater then 1 the reaction is? Spontaneous Q=1, reaction shifts to the left, delta G increases until Q=K
In Case two delta G 0 is greater then 1 and k is less then 0? reaction shifts to the left and Q decreases, Q=1 so delta G= deltaG0
what is the most abundant mineral? Feldspar
Feldspar is made from? SiO2+Al
What are the top four industrial Chemicals? Sulfuric Acids, Nitrogen, Oxygen, and Ethlylene
Where does H2 come from? natural gas, and could come from hydrolysis of h2O
What is the advantage of getting H2 from hydrolysis? no green house gases but it takes energy
H2 as fuel advantages and disadvantages? no pollutangents, needs a lot of fuel of bonded to a metal which makes it heavy.
Where is H2 used for? @/3 is used for fertilizer and partially hydrogenated oils and Industry reducing agent
Why are hydrogenated oils made? To lower BP and MP
What are the three main forms of Carbon? graphite, diamond and C60
What are the characteristics of graphite? sp2, pi bonds, planars, good lubricant, absords wavelengths
Why is graphite put in tires? to absorb UV light so rudder doesn't degrade
Diamond is a ___ form sp2 crystalline
C60 is in what shape and used in? soccer ball shape, get a lot in forest fires, forms nanotubes
What are the hope of nanotubes? Be able to deliver medicine
What is the difference between silicon, silicates and silicones? Silicon= element Silicates=SiO2 Silicons= chain of SiOSiOSiO
What are examples of silicates and Silicons -granite -oils higher heat resistance in breast implants
What is pure SiO2 quartz
What are the characteristics of silica glass? very low coef. thermal expansion heat doesn't expand, and low absordance of UV
Kimax and Pyrex is what type of glass B2O3
What are characteristics of B2O3 glass? lower coeff. of thermal expansion
What is the most common glass? Sodalime
Why is Sodalime most common class? It is cheap but the thermal expansion is high
Lead class is made from? Characteristics? SiO3+PbO it is a crystal which means high refractive index
Characteristics of Crystal High refractive index and rings nicely
how is N2 taken from the air? by fixation either fixed enzymes or bacteria in roots of leguts
where is NaN3 found? In air bags
Why shouldn't you mix ammonium with bleach? It produces very harmful gases
What is nitrogen used in? fertilizer and explosives
What is the main nitrogen is explosives? Nitrates
Where do you get gun powder from? bat droppings
What makes explosives smokeless Sulfer
What is added to gun powder to make it good? Carbon and Sulfer
Who figured out how to get nitrates Hober and Ostould
What is Chili salt peter? NaNO3
N2O is in? nitrous oxide, laughing gas, whip cream and in righter tires
NO comes from? Cars it is a pollution
What color is NO2? brown
Where does phosphorus come from it is mined
Why is white phosphorus explosive? due to strained bonds
White phosphorus is found in? gernades, it burns skin
What are the three types of phosphorus? white, red and yellow
Yellow is a fertilizer
Oxygen comes from? distilled air
What is O2 used in? welding as an oxidizing agent
What changes O2 to O3 a sppark
Why is O3 bad? It can destroy your lungs
Where is O3 found in offices? Near the photocopiers
What is in firemen breathing mask? K+2OH- +H2O2+O2
O2- is an oxide?
Peroxide is? O2- 2
What is H2O2 used in? Cleaning stains and putting on canker sores
What is super oxide? O2 -
How do we mine sulfur? We send down superheated water that melts sulfur and then pump it out.
What is another way we can obtain sulfur> by people going and breaking it off of volcanoes
how do you vulcanize tires? add Sulfur to make the hard hard and not goowy
Where do we get Se? mined
what does it prevent? Prostate cancer
What is it used in? Photocopiers
How do photocopiers work? Se is a photoconductor and when light hits Se becomes conductive the cylinder is charged which causes the toner to stick to the paper
Where are most Halogens found? seawater
Where is F2 found? in ore
What can destroy O3? CFC
What is Teflan made out of? polymers of F-C-F
What is chlorine used in? pesticides and hericides
Where is polyvinyl chloride PVC found? In car seats
What is the main component of bleach? Chlorine
Where is Bromine used? disinfectant at water treatment plants
AgBr is used in? film
It takes how many C's to absorb light? 20 C
When the temperature goes up what happens to H, S, G, G0 and K? G increases, S decreases, H increase, K increases, G0 decrease
I2 is mainly used in... iodized salts
what prevents goiters? KI
Why did pioneers have goiters? Because they had a lack of seafood in their diet and no KI
Where is He contained? in natural gas wells
What was helium used in? Blimps
Why are blimps not used today? Because Germany filled their blimps with H2 and it blew up.
What was the name of this blimp? Hindenburg
What is He (l) used for? coolant
what is he l 's temperature? 4K
What is Neon used in? lights
where does neon, Argon and Krypton come from? distilled air
What is Argon used in today? light bulbs and thermal pane windows, also welders use it to keep stuff like O2 away
What do metals conduct? heat and electricity
What is rock? a mixture of minerals
What are group one known as and why? The chlorides because they react mainly with chloride
Group II is known as the.. carbonates
What are the rest of the groups? Oxides or Sulfides
What is an example of calcination? CaCO3 plus heat-CO2 and CaO(lime)
What is an example of roasting? ZnS+3/2 O2-ZnO+SO2
what does a scubber do? Takes the SO2 and combines it with CaSO3
Smelting is used for ___ only. Iron
What is found in iron? SiO2
What process gets aluminum pure? Cryolite add pure C
What is an example of electrolysis? Na + Cl - Na (l)+Cl2
liquid Na can do what? float
What is substitutional Alloys? elements with atoms of the same size are suck in place of the other atoms
What are some examples of substitutional alloys? sterling silver, solder, brass, bronze
What is in sterling silver? Ag+Cu
What is in Solder? tin and lead, tin and Copper and tin and silver
Which of the solder types is not used anymore? tin and lead because lead is poisonous.
What is in brass? copper and zinc
What is in bronze? copper and tin
What used to be in bronzes in ancient times? copper and As
Why is Hephaistus the greek smith god consider lame? He worked with bronze which then contained As so he had a contaminated immune system
What lead to the fall of the Roam empire? Pewter plates in the upperclass, they all had lead poisoning
What was the Franklin expedition looking for? Northwest passage
How did they get lead poisoning? canned food back then was sealed with lead
What are the two types of tin? White tin and Grey tin
White tin is found in.. organ pipes
What is tin disease? When white tin turns to grey tin when the temperature is less then 13.2*C
Mn is a ___ metal. Strategic metal
How does the US get Mn? it much be imported
What was the cover story that Howard Hues used to grab the Russian submarine? Mining Mn off the ocean floor
Where are most of rare Earths found? China
Who is trying to sue china for the rare earth's? US
How did the two deposits of rare earth elements form? from meters hitting the Earth
What is used for medicine and Iran is looking to get into? Isotopes
How is gold extracted? by Cyanide leaching
Why is this gold extraction harmful? If it contaminates nature it will kill everything
Created by: sfitzpatrick



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