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Thermodynamics (Define) The study of the laws that govern the conversion of energy from one form to another, the direction in which heat will flow, and the availability of energy to do work.
Thermal energy the energy that a substance possesses due to the, kinetic energy, or motion of its molecules.
temperature qa measure of the acerage kinetic energy of the molecules of a substance
heat the transfer of thermal energy from a hotter to a colder object
law of conservation of energy in any chemical reaction or physical process, energy can be converted, from one form to another, but neither is created nor destroyed.
chemical potential energy the energy stored in a chemical substance
gas (properties) assumes the shape and volume of its container particles can move past one another compressible lots of free space between particles flows easily particles can move easily
liquid (properties) assumes the shape of the part of the container which it occupies particles can move/ slide past one another not easily compressible little free space between particles flows easily particles can move/slide past one another
solid (properties) retains a fixed volume and shape rigid - particles locked into place not easily compressible little free space between particles does not flow easily rigid- particles cannot move/ slide past one another
q the amount of heat transferred in joules(J) or Kilojouls(KJ) Calories(Cal) or Kilocalories(kcal)
m mass of substance in g or Kg
Cp specific heat- amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of that substance by one degree Celsius in [J/(g*C)]
(Triangle) T change in temperature (T final - T initial)
solid to liquid melting
liquid to solid freezing
liquid to gas vaporization
gas to liquid condensation
solid to gas sublimation
gas to solid deposition
critical point the temperature beyond which the molecules of a substance have too much kinetic energy to stick together and form a liquid.
triple point the temperature and pressure at which all three phases can exist simultaneously in equilibrium
first law of thermodynamics energy can be changed from one form to another, but it cannot be created or destroyed. The total amount of energy and matter in the Universe remains constant, merely changing from one form to another.
Enthalpy Determines the overall heat of the reaction. It depends only upon the initial and final state of the reactants/products.
Exothermic (bonds) FORMED
Endothermic (bonds) BROKEN
Bond energy Hf = Change in bond energies broken -change in bond energies made
Hesse's Law Change in heat for the reaction will be equal to the sum of the enthalpy changes for the individual steps
Single reactions Change in Heat rxn = Change in Hf products - Change in Hf reactants
Reversed multiple reactions Change in Heat rxn = Change in Hf products + change in Hf reactants
exothermic reactions reactants are higher than products
endothermic reactions reactants are lower than products
Created by: kwoneee96