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What evaluation must take place and be completed before a student can receive special education services for the first time? initial placement.
What Is an IEP? An Individualized Education Program (IEP) is a written statement of special instruction and services designed to meet the unique needs of a student whose disabilities adversely affect his or her educational progress.
How Is a Student’s Eligibility for Special Education Determined? Step One: Screening Step Two: Pre-referral Step Three: Multifactored Evaluation
Step One, Screening Involves..... formal assessment instruments, review of observations by parents and educators
formal assessment instruments are?
Step Two: Pre-referral is? Prereferral is designed to prevent misidentification of a student whose difficulties stem from ineffective teaching, temporary circumstances, or language difficulties due to his or her cultural or linguistic background.
What is the Student Improvement Team or child Study Team? Conducts the pr-referral, which usually consists of a school psychologist and two or more teachers, identify the student’s learning difficulties, suggest low-cost, minimum-intensity intervention strategies, then implemented on a trial basis, 2-6 weeks
What is a formal multifactored evaluation? Last of three steps taken to determine if student is eligible for special education services.
Who Creates the IEP? the IEP team creates an IEP for that student
Who Is on the IEP Team? May include (but are not limited to): student, parents, 1 gen. ed teacher, 1 sped teacher, related services, public agency rep, family, peers, advocates,assessment interpreters.
What Is the Role of the IEP Team Coordinator? Organize and lead all IEP meetings Ensure that proper documentation is kept Ensure a regular process for monitoring the student’s progress is established. Communicate with parents.
What Is the Role of the Student’s Parents or Guardians In An IEP? actively involved in all decisions regarding educational services for the student
What Are the Goals of the IEP Team? observations of the student’s behavior and learning in a variety of settings. academic and nonacademic priorities. Creating a plan to initiate services for the student, assess the student’s progress, and attain the student’s annual goals.
What Characterizes an Effective IEP? present levels of educational performance,Samples of the student’s work, Cultural considerations,Academic and nonacademic skills,plan for supplementary aids & services, Transition services.
What Are the 7 Components of an IEP required by IDEA 04? (Present levels)(Placement)(Annual goals) (Progress toward annual goals)(Services, modifications, and accommodations)(Extent student will not participate/nondisabled students)(Transition)
How Are Transition Issues Addressed in the IEP? IEP team, must include measurable postsecondary goals based on proper assessments related to training, education, employment, and when necessary, independent living skills. The IEP must specify transition services needed.
How Are Discipline Issues Addressed in the IEP? When a student with an IEP violates the school’s code of conduct (drug use or a weapons violation, for example), the IEP team must conduct a Functional Behavioral Assessment if one has not already been performed, and develop a Behavior Intervention Plan.
What IEP Provisions Are Required for Preschool Children with Disabilities? IDEA requires an IEP for children ages three through five. Infants and toddlers must have an Individualized Family Service Plan (IFSP).
What IEP Provisions Are Required for Preschool Children with Disabilities? At age three, children then must be served by their LEAs, who are required to develop IEPs in the same manner and with the same components as all other eligible children and youth.
How Did IDEA 2004 Change the IEP Process? elimination of benchmarks or short-term objectives except in the case of students who take alternative assessments. Postsecondary transition goals and services are required only for students who are sixteen years of age and older
How does IDEA Require Writing Annual Goals? Annual goals should be designed to: (a) meet the student’s needs resulting from the disability so that he or she can progress in the general education curriculum, and (b) meet the student’s other educational needs that result from the disability.
How Does IDEA Address Students with IEPs taking assessments identical to those of their nondisabled peers? IDEA 2004 requires that the IEP include accommodations necessary to measure the student’s academic achievement and functional performance on standard assessments.
Are There Any Limits on the Number of Students Taking Alternative Assessments? NCLB limits # of students taking alternative assessments to 1% of school district’s total # of students, specifically those with severe cognitive disabilities. Waiver for 2% in effect most states.
Who Takes Alternative vs. Standard Assessments? Students whose severe cognitive disabilities preclude their participation in standard districtwide and statewide assessments must take alternative assessments aligned with alternative achievement standards
What Are Alternative Assessments? Alternative assessments vary, but typically include analysis of the student’s work, along with alternative response indicators such as photographs, video or audiotapes, and other evidence.
What Is Present Levels of Educational Performance? Written description of how the student’s disability affects involvement & progress in general ed curriculum & related activities. Includes list of student’s strengths, challenges, & learning styles based on info from multifactored evaluation.
How Is The Present Levels of Educational Performance Used in the IEP? The IEP team uses the statement of present levels of educational performance to create annual goals, short-term objectives, and benchmarks to measure the student’s progress.
Cooperative teaching is an indirect style of collaboration and best suited for general and special educators? False
An example of the 'deficit' model of response to problems encountered in the classroom for one student? A teacher refers the student for testing to determine eligibility for special education.
According to the United States Department of Education, current research findings indicate which of the following about postsecondary outcomes of students, especially those with mild to moderate disabilities? 40% of these students drop out of high school.
One explanation for the federal mandate of Least Restrictive Environment (LRE) being open to interpretation by the courts? Changing demographic of student population and inclusionary practices.
Represents a major flaw in the 'removal' approach as a service delivery model for students with disabilities? A student primarily receives services in a pull-out program without access to the general education curriculum or preparation for state-mandated tests.
Implies a cooperative teaching element where educators are involved while teaching in the same classroom environment and have planned for their roles? Co-active and coordinated
Best describes a collaborative partnership of educators related to Cooperative Teaching? A social studies teacher and a special education teacher recognize each student as individuals and choose to work together to develop a unit of study.
n order to use the power and advantage of having two adults in the same classroom environment, what should two educators be willing to do? Share roles and resources.
What provision did IDEA 97 have? One provision should be to enable students with disabilities access to the regular education curriculum with their non-disabled peers to an appropriate extent.
Skills such as listening, giving and soliciting feedback, and questioning are needed to best establish which type of relationship? Collaborative working relationship
In order to strengthen a collaborative relationship once it has begun to develop, which set of skills is needed? Problem-solving and consensus building
In order to sustain a collaborative relationship, which set of skills is needed? Recognizing and managing conflict
Describes a conflict in the school setting? An English teacher believes the social studies teacher is not willing to allocate class time to implementing technology across the curriculum.
According to research, what percentage of our working day do we deal with conflict? 20%
An interdisciplinary team needs to write an IEP, yet team members differ about the long-term goals for the student. Which type of conflict does this situation represent for the parties involved? Having incompatible goals.
Cooperative teachers want assist student not reading at grade level. One teacher wants use assistive technology,other teacher believes reading should be assigned homework. What is needed to resolve this type of conflict? This type of conflict involves a mutually acceptable solution that fulfills the needs of all parties concerned.
Reflects both parties making a deliberate decision not to address the conflict, becoming angry and frustrated? Avoiding
Reflects one party choosing to frame the conflict on her own concern, attempting to satisfy her own concern with little concern for the other person or party, satisfying her concerns at the expense of the other persons? Competing
How can educators resolving conflicts through negotiation focus on interests, not positions? Recognize behind every opposed position lie shared and compatible interests.
What might occur if cooperative presence is the only element of the Cooperative Teaching plan? The special education teacher may feel more like an aide than a true teaching partner.
What is the concern with the typical approaches taken by some schools to include students with disabilities in the general education curriculum? Students with disabilities are not always provided the level of academic or cognitive access to the general education curriculum mandated by IDEA.
In cooperative planning, which of the following two planning components must the cooperative teachers decide? Mechanics and conceptualization.
Describes a shared conceptualization between Cooperative Teachers? The special education teacher and general education teacher plan how to design instruction to meet the needs of all students.
Describes 'multiple means of representation' as a principle of Universal Design for Learning (UDL)? The special education teacher and the general education teacher present new information to students using a multisensory approach: auditorially, visually, and kinesthetically.
Represents 'multiple means of engagement' as principle of Universal Design for Learning (UDL)? A student with a memory deficit uses a calculator to complete the assignment.
'Multiple means of expression' refers to which of the following components of instructional design? Adapting to learning styles
Represents an alternative approach to handling the enormous content demand? Teach the big ideas.
Describes a teacher demonstrating the use of conspicuous strategies? A special education teacher models the thinking steps needed to solve a problem in a general math class setting.
The term 'human scaffolding' is also referred to as which of the following types of instruction? Peer-mediated
What should you first ask when starting Cooperative Teaching? For whom am I focusing my Cooperative Teaching effort?
During the Cooperative Teaching program implementation phase, which question must first be addressed? When might we create the action plan and what might it contain?
In order to effectively implement Cooperative Teaching, why is it important to secure input from all stakeholders? Prevent divisions among people and cliques from forming.
Sufficient for staff development in Cooperative Teaching? A two-day workshop for initial implementation/background with follow-up
What is the most precious commodity and highly sought-after primary resource from teachers who are beginning to implement Cooperative Teaching? Time and instructional resources.
Describes the best practice in regard to parental involvement with Cooperative Teaching? A brief article in the school newspaper, translated in Spanish.
Describes the best practice in regard to students' understanding of Cooperative Teaching? Providing a brief explanation at the beginning of the lesson, followed by an activity identifying benefits of Cooperative Teaching.
Would help Cooperative Teachers who are interested in changes to students' social interactions in Cooperative Teaching classrooms? Compare levels of social interactions of students with and without disabilities in cooperatively taught classes with those of students in traditionally taught classes.
Would help Cooperative Teachers who are interested in planning conversations around Universal Design principles? Collect data during a planning session on the number of times teachers discuss the Universal Design principles and compare with those in traditional classes.
Would assist Cooperative Teachers who are interested in tracking system changes? Compare referral rates for special education with cooperatively taught classrooms and traditionally taught classrooms.
Collaboration The act of two or more individuals working together in a coordinated manner, as in a joint intellectual endeavor.
Cooperative teaching cooperative teaching refers to a direct form of collaboration in which a general educator and one or more support service providers voluntarily agree to work together in a co-active and coordinated fashion in the general education classroom.
Deficit model teacher requested assistance by completing a referral form and turning it in to the designated person--was to test the student, determine eligibility for special education then remove student from the environment(s)
What is the focus of the deficit model? The "deficit" model focuses on the student as the major problem, neither looking within the environment nor the instructional practices in the classroom
Least Restrictive Environment one interpretation relates to a parallel system of service delivery (removal from general education for specialized supports and services) while the other expouses an integrated in-class support system.
Pull-out models One interpretation of the LRE (lease restrictive environment) relates to a parallel system of service delivery (removal from general education for specialized supports and services) while the other expouses an integrated in-class support system
What is the major flaw of pull-out? A major flaw in this "removal" approach is fragmentation of the curriculum.
Conflict Conflict is not a state of being; it is an active process that can be analyzed, influenced, and ultimately managed and/or resolved.
Conflict styles avoiding, competing, accommodating, compromising, or collaborating.
two dimensions of conflict styles cooperativeness and assertiveness.
assertiveness Assertiveness implies that you put forth what you want whereas cooperativeness relates to working together to meet the needs of both parties.
Negotiation Negotiation is a specific problem-solving approach for reaching consensus and has been used successfully in business as well as educational arenas (Bazerman & Neale, 1992).
Mild disabilities mental retardation, emotional distur- bance, and learning disabilities.
Which students comprise largest group of all students with disabilities, approximately 6% to 7% of total school-age population & about 70% of those identified as disabled mild disabilities
Identification and Referral • Screening and teacher identification of students with school problems • Prereferral intervention strategies • Referral and notification of parents
Determination of Eligibility • Design of the Individualized Assessment Plan (IAP) • Parental permission for assessment • Administration, scoring, and interpretation of assessment procedures • Reporting results • Decisions about eligibility
Program Planning • Design of the Individualized Education Program (IEP) • Parental agreement to the IEP
Program Implementation and Evaluation • Implementation of the IEP • Ongoing monitoring of student progress • Annual review of the IEP • Periodic reevaluation of eligibility
Individualized Assessment Plan systematic plan of action to individualize the assessment process so that each student’s unique needs are addressed.
Experts recommend that rules for classroom conduct be simple, few in number, and positively stated
Not one of the diagnostic criteria for ADHD suggested by the American Psychiatric Association? The condition begins before age 12.
Measure of self-concept provides information on the student's perceptions of familial acceptance, academic competence, peer popularity, and personal security? Self-Esteem Index
The most-often used assessment techniques for determining whether students have behavior disorders are interviews, observations, and inventories
If a student has average classroom performance and a severe behavior problem, the student is not eligible for special education services
The Behavior Evaluation Scale-3 is a norm-referenced measure designed to gather information about the five types of behavior defined in federal law
The functional behavioral assessment approach fits best within the ecological model
Which model holds that behaviors are learned and can be taught? behavioral approach
Which of the following assessment tools also links assessment with instruction for students? Social Skills Rating System (SSRS)
Direct observation A very flexible technique used to study a wide range of student (and teacher) behavior
Social Skills Rating System Based on the federal definition of emotional disturbance
Behavior Evaluation Scale—3 Its rating scales address problem behavior, social skills, and academic competence
Attention Deficit Disorders Evaluation Scale—Third Edition A self-report scale for students that assesses self-perceptions
Multidimensional Self-Concept Scale Teachers and parents rate inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity
Behavior Rating Profile—Second Edition Teachers, parents, students themselves, and students' peers act as informants
Goals of No Child Left Behind? accountability for student performance, focus on what works, reduce bureaucracy, empower parents
Created by: 1603145281