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chem unit 1 module 2


the first ionisation energy of an element is the energy required to remove one electron from each atom in one mole of gaseous atoms to form one mole of gaseous 1+ ions.
electron shielding is the repulsion between electrons in different inner shells. shielding reduces the net attractive force from the positive nucleus on the outer shell electrons.
Successive ionisation energies are a measure of the energy required to remove each electron in turn
the second ionisation energy is the energy required to remove one electron from each ion in one mole of gaseous 1+ ions to from one mole of gaseous 2+ ions.
a shell is a group of atomic orbitals with the same principal quantum number, also known as a main energy level.
an atomic orbital is a region within an atom that can hold up to two electrons, with opposite spins.
a sub-shell is a group of the same type of atomic orbitals (s, p, d or f) within a shell.
ionic bond the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions.
covalent bond a bond formed by a shared pair of electrons
metallic bond the electrostatic attraction between positive metal ions and delocalised electrons.
a group is a vertical column in the periodic table. Elements in the same group have similar chemical properties and their atoms have the same number of outer shell electrons
a dative covalent bond or coordinate bond is a shared pair of electrons which has been provided by one of the bonding atoms only.
electronegativity is a measure of the attraction of a bonded atom for the pair of electrons in a covalent bond.
a permanent dipole is a small charge difference across a bond that results from a difference in the electronegativities of the bonded atoms.
an intermolecular force is an attractive force between neighbouring molecules
a permanent dipole- dipole force is a weak attractive force between permanent dipoles in neighbouring polar molecules
van der Waals forces are attractive forces between induced dipoles in neighbouring molecules
Created by: Louise123