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evil chem crap

chemistry 1150

of the same or similar kind of nature homogeneous
consisting of dissimilar or diverse ingredients or constitutes heterogeneous
only a single type of matter is present(only one elemental substance) pure substance
occurs when two or more pure substances are intermingled with each other mixtures
mixtures in which the composition is identical throughout homogeneous mixtures
a mixture in which the composition is not the same throughout heterogeneous mixture
this indicates the number of atoms of each element that make up the smallest possible piece of a compound chemical formula
chemical formula for two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom H2O
transformation of a pure substance leaving it as the same substance but in a different state physical transformation
these properties include color, odor, and taste physical properties
when a pure substance goes from solid state directly to gas state without going through the liquid state sublimation
transformation of a pure substance leaving it as a different substance or substances chemical transformation
the starting substances during chemical transformation reactants
the new substance formed from chemical transformation products
at normal atmospheric pressure water boils at 100 C
a ______ will greatly increase the rate of a chemical reaction without getting involved in the chemical reaction catalysts
A+B > AB- reactants a & b combine to form a more complexed molecule synthesis reactions
AB> A + B- the molecule AB is broken down into smaller molecules causing energy to be released decomposition reactions
AB + CD> AD + CB-involve both synthesis and decomposition reactions, both reactants exchange parts to yield a new compound double replacement reactions
A + BC > B + AC- two reactants exchange molecules to form a new product single replacement reactions
CH + O> CO + H20- when reactants exchange molecules causing these to ignite, and the end products are a gas and H2O combustion reactions
zeros within a number are always significant figures
zeros that do nothing but set the decimal point are always not significant figures
trailing zeros that aren't needed to hold the decimal point are always significant figures
4308 and 40.05 contain____ significant figures 4
470,000 and 0.10000 contain ____ significant figures. 2
4.00 and 400 contain______ significant figures 3
negatively charged subatomic particle electron
positively charged subatomic particle proton
subatomic particle found to carry no charge neutron
the number of protons found in an element atomic number
the number of protons and neutron found in an element atomic mass
different versions of the same element that have the same atomic number but a different atomic mass isotope
an atom in which the electron/proton balance is not maintained , cations + charge, anions - charge ion
the distance from a peak in one wave to the peak in the next wave, always expressed in meters or nanometers wavelength
the number of waves that pass each second and are expressed in hertz(Hz) frequency
electrons orbit around a nucleus in fixed energy levels, electrons are found in specific energy levels and nowhere else, electron energy levels are qunatized bohr model
electrons in the outer levels of bohr diagrams valance electrons
n=1 2n2= 2 X 1(2) 2 electrons
n=2 2n2= 2x 2(2) 8 electrons
n=3 2n2= 2x 3(2) 18 electrons
n=4 2n2= 2 x 4(2) 32 electrons
each outer electron is represented by one dot around the atomic symbol in lewis dot
electrons occupy energy subshells within each shell that are designated s, p, d, and f
the number of subshells in each level is the same as the number on the main level
the first energy level has one subshell designated 1s
the second energy level has two subshells designated 2s, 2p
the third energy level has three subshells designated 3s, 3p, and 3d
n=1(2 electrons) has a subshell capacity of 1s2
n=2 (8 electrons) has a subshell capacity of 1s2, 2p6
n=3 (18 electrons)has a subshell capacity of 1s2, 2p6, 3d10
n=4 (32 electrons) has a subshell capacity of 1s2, 2p6, 3d10, 4f14
electrons react to form compounds in a way to put eight electrons in there outermost valence shell octet rule
metals are always____ ions positive
nonmetals are always____ ions negative
the charge of an ion is equal to its________ group number
metals lose all their valance electrons to form cations
nonmetals gain electrons to fill their outer shell and form anions
generally the # of ____ is equal to the # of____ electrons; protons
equation to calculate wavelength energy E=hc/λ
an atom defined as the arrangement of electrons at the lowest total energy ground state
when one or more of an atoms electrons are located in higher levels of energy shells excited state
collection of atoms bound together molecule
any substance comprised of distinct molecules molecular substance
comprised of two or more types of elements molecular compound
comprised of only one type of element elemental substance
the attractive forces that hold atoms together in molecules chemical bonds
involves the transfer of electrons ionic bonding
involves the sharing of electrons covalent bonding
formation of chemical bonds always releases energy
breaking of chemical bonds always requires energy
the number of dots in a lewis dot structure corresponds to the number of valence electrons
determine total number of valence electrons, connect atoms with a single bond, place remaining electrons as lone pairs, if each does not have an octet change lone pair to bonding pairs steps to drawl a lewis dot diagram with bonds
these are valid dot diagrams that differ by electron placement resonance forms
these are ions that are made up of multiple atoms polyatomic ions
Na2S sodium sulfide
MgCl2 magnesium chloride
Al2O3 aluminum oxide
Li3N lithium nitride
FeCl2 ferrous chloride/Iron(II) chloride
FeCl3 ferric chloride/Iron(III) chloride
CuCl Copper(I)chloride
CuCl2 Copper(II) chloride
CoCl2 cobalt(II) chloride
CoCl3 cobalt(III) chloride
Hg2Cl2 mercury(I) chloride
HgCl2 mercury(II) chloride
SnCl2 tin(II) chloride
SnCl4 tin(IV) chloride
Pcl3 phosphorous tricloride
P4O6 tetraphosphorous hexoxide
P4O10 tetraphorphorous decoxide
SF6 sulfure hexafluoride
SO2 sulfur dioxide
SO3 sulfure trioxide
NO2 nitrogen dioxide
N2O4 dinitrogen tetroxide
N2O5 dinitrogen pentoxide
NH4+ ammonium
CH3CO2- acetate
CH- cyanide
NO2- nitrite
NO3- nitrate
Co3(2) carbonate
HCO3 bicarbonate
HI hydroiodic acid
an acid is any substance that dissociates in water to yield an H+ ion
a base is any substance that dissociates in water to yield an OH- ion
group IA metals always form +1 ions
group IIA ions always form +2 ions
group IIIA ions will form +3 ions
group IVA will form +2 and +4 ions
group V will gain 3 electrons to form -3 ions
group VI will gain two electrons to form -2 ions
group VII gain one electron to form -1 ions
when writing chemical formulas _____ goes first and _____ goes second metal; non metal
the sum total charge of an ionic compound must equal zero
heat, color change, emission of light, formation of gas or a solid precipitate are all evidence of a chemical change
balance equations by placing_____ before reactants and the products coefficients
the study of the quantitative aspects of chemical reactions stoichiometry
one mol is_____ of anything 6.022 x 10(23)
1 mole of an atom has a molar mass equal to its atomic weight
to calculate %yield actual yield/theoretical yield x 100
any reactant that is present in short supply relative to the other reatants according to the demands of a balanced equation limiting reactant
in a solution the substance present in the greatest amount is called solvent
all substances other than the solvent in a solution are called solutes
solutions in which water are the solvent are called aqueous solutions
formation of attractive forces between solvent particles and solute particles ion-dipole forces
we must overcome the solute-solute attractive forces, ΔE is positive solute-seperation step
we must over come the solvent-solvent attractive forces and pry solvent particles apart to make room for solute particles, ΔE is positive solvent-seperation step
as solute-solvent attractive forces develop, energy is released, ΔE is negative solvation step
ΔE solute separation + ΔE solvent separation + ΔE solvation= ΔE total
if ΔE total < 0 the substance will dissolve
if ΔE total >) the substance will probably not dissolve
the maximum amount of a solute that can be dissolved in a given amount of solvent is called solubility of the solute
when the maximum amount of solute is dissolved in a solution it is saturated solution
these have many molecules with nonpolar tails and polar heads grouped together micelle
moles of solute/1L of solution= molarity
mass of diluted solution x volume of diluted solution/ mass of stock solution= volume of stock solution
grams of solute/grams of solution x 100= percent composition by mass
volume of solute/volume of solution x 100= percent composition by volume
grams of solute/volume of solution x 100= percent composition by mass/volume
consider _____ if its sour to the taste, turns litmus paper red, eats away active metals by reacting with them to produce hydrogen gas acidic
considered _____ if its bitter to the taste, turns litmus paper dark blue, produced aqueous solutions that felt slippery to the touch basic
a substance in an aqueous solution that conducts an electrical current electrolyte
a substance in an aqueous solution that does not conduct an electrical current nonelectrolyte
completely dissociates into ions upon dissolving in water strong electrolyte
partially dissociates into ions upon dissolving in water weak electrolyte
a water soluble compound that dissociates in water to give large numbers of H3O+ ions strong acid
a water soluble compound that dissociates partially in water to produce only a few H3O+ ions weak acid
an acid that can give off two H3O+ ions diprotic acid
an acid that can give off one H3O+ ions monoprotic acid
and acid that can give off three H3O+ ions tetraprotic acid
the equilibrium constant for the reaction between a base and water= Kb
the equilibrium constant for the reaction between a acid an water= Ka
holds the value of 10(-14) at 25 degrees C Kw
the splitting of ionic compounds into individual charge components dissociation
a mole of any substance has a mass in grams equal to the molecular/atomic mass
Created by: chop



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