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beer brewing

beer strength is usually measured as ABV
alcohol by weight is less than alcohol by volume
the typical strength of most beers worldwide is 4-5 ABV
the biggest brewing company in the world is Inbev
the most beer in the world is brewed in china
the most beer in the world is drunk by czechs
the major component of any beer by weight is water
the least cost contributor to a bottle of beer is hops
the highest cost contributor to a bottle of beer is the actual bottle
biggest selling style of beer in the US lager (light)
the basic sequence in a malting operation is 1. steeping 2. germination 3. kilning
the basic sequence in a brewing operation is 1) malt storage 2) milling 3) mashing 4) wort separation 5) boiling 6) clarification 7) cooling 8) fermentation 9) conditioning 10) filtration and stabilization 11) packaging
intensity of kilning high in ale, low in lager
extent of malt modification high in ale, low in lager
mode of hopping for flavor dry in ale, late in lager
yeast type top in ale, bottom in lager
fermentation temp 12-20 C in ale, 6-15 C in lager
bock alt kolsch porter helles marzen stout lager ale ale ale lager lager ale
light beers have fewer calories
draft beers are on tap and unpasteurized
main gas component of beer CO2
some brewers deliberately add _____ to improve foam Nitrogen
________ gas promotes beer staling Oxygen
the main surface active component that stabilizes beer foam is protein
protein originates in barley
protein cross-links with iso-aldehyde alcohols
foam is destroyed by oils, lipids and alcohol
what is the tendency of beer to spontaneously foam? gushing
gushing is primarily caused by fusarium
fusarium originates in infected grain
the color of beer is mostly due to melanoidins
malanoidins are formed from sugars and amino acids during kilning
color can also come from the oxidation of polyphenols
the main source of haze in beer is by the joining of polyphenols and proteins
beer stone in pipes is caused by oxalate
the best way to prevent beer stone is to add calcium carbonate
most of the beer flavor is detected by the nose
what are the four basic tastes and what are responsible for the tastes? sweet (sugar) salt (NaCl) acids (low pH) bitter (iso-acids)
what is the pH range of most beers? 4-4.5
fruity flavors in beer come from esters
canned corn flavor in beer comes from dimethyl sulfide
butterscosh flavor in beer comes from diacetyl
MBT in beer gives a ________ aroma skunky
the trigeminal nerve detects CO2 in beer
the smoothness in Guiness is due to nitrogen
the moderation consumption of beer can reduce the risk of death from atherosclerosis
the active ingredient that reduces these risks is alcohol
beer is a good source of certain B vitamins
the major source of calories in beer is alcohol
beer seems to be relatively resistant to microbial spoilage because it contains iso-alpha-acids
the major source of carbohydrates for making beer is malt
weizenbiers are made using a lot of wheat
latin names for barley vulagre and distichon
two row barley generate _____ extract that 6 row barley more
husk micropyle embryo aleurone endosperm filterbed in brewhouse water entry hormones enzymes food storage
the first stage of malting is steeping
the aim of steeping is to increase the moisture content to 40%
typical temp range for steeping 14-18 C
steeping takes approx 2 days
the second stage of the malting process is germination
germination lasts for 4-6 days
the typical temperature range for germination is 16-20 C
the purpose of the germination stage is to breakdown cell walls and make enzymes
the third stage of malting is kilning
the temperature is gradually increased through this process because enzymes are more sensitive to heat as moisture levels increase
ale malts tend to be treated at a ___ temperature than lager malts and so they develop more ____ and ____ higher; color and flavor
a range of speciality malts are produced by roasting
in order of increasing color, 4 of them are: carapils, crystal, chocolate, black
latin name for hops humulus lupulus
active ingredients for brewing resins and oils
resins and oils are located in lupulin glands
chemical name for bitterness precursor alpha acids
during boiling these precursors are converted to iso-alpha-acids
hopes are often classified as either bittering or aroma types. the difference is the quality of their ____ and the level of their _____ aroma; resin
hops are most frequently added as _____ but can be asses as extracts made with _____ pellets; liquid CO2
if these extracts are reduced they can be used to protect against light damage
the liquid obtained when mashing is wort
the first stage in starch breakdown is ______ and the key temp is ____ for malt starch gelatinization; 65 C
the enzymes that breakdown starch are amylases
in a well run brewery, water usage us about _____ barrels for every barrel of beer produced 3-5
hard water contains high levels of calcium
an ex of water with high levels of calcium is davis, burton
an ex of water with low levels of calcium is pilsen
some brewers use sources of sugar other than malt. These materials are called adjuncts
some starches need to cooked before use. what are some examples? corn, rice, sorgham
______ mills are used when the brewer is using a lauter ton roller
________ mills are used when the brewer is using a mash filter because of darcy's law hammer
what is darcy's law it explains the rate of wort separation. (P x Bed Perm x Filt. Area)/(Bed Depth x Viscosity)
wort is boiled because sterilization, volatilization, concentration, isomerization, precipitation, inactivation
the solid material produced in boiling is called trub
trub is removed in either a _____ or _____ depending on _____ whirlpool or hopback; mode of hopping
solid material produced during cooling cold break
latin name for ale yeast s. cerevesiae
latin name for lager yeast s. pastorianus
yeast age can be assessed by counting the number of bud scars
yeast need some oxygen in brewery fermentation for healthy membranes
customary pitching rate 10^6/mL/degree Plato
yeast count in performed by hemocytometer
yeast need to be alive (viable) and this is assessed using the stain _____ methylene blue
fermentations are often accelerated by the addition of zinc
high gravity brewing is producing beer from higher strength, wort that is needed for a given beer strength with dilution of the product to ensure the strength at the last stage of the process
during fermentation, yeast generate a noxious flavor called diacetyl with a butterscosh flavor
this flavor can be removed by prolonged contact with yeast
after fermentation, beer is chilled to _____ to aid stabilization -1 C
settling of the solids in beer can be enhances by adding insinglass
beer is filtered using either kieselghur or perlite
beer can be further stabilized by the addition of ____ to remove polyphenols or _____ to remove proteins PVPP or papain; silica hydrogel or tannic acid
residual microbes can be removed by sterile filtration or pasteurization
the CO2 level is generally increased to 2-3 volumes
typically, filling rates in bottles are 1200/min
typically, filling rate in cans are >2000/min
Created by: diadoramid9