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Chem C12

What are Heterogeneous mixtures? Composition not uniform. Ex. Soil and milk
What are Homogeneous mixtures? Uniform throughout. Ex. Salt Water
What do solutions have? Homogeneous mixtures, two or more substances in a single phase, and it is composed of a solute and a solvent.
Which one is the solute? The one with the lesser amount.
Which one is the solvent? The one with the greater amount.
What do most solutions deal with? Water, as the solvent.
What are suspensions? Particles too large to dissolve, as they settle to the bottom. The particles can be filtered out. Ex. Jar of muddy water.
What are colloids? Particles that are small enough to remain dispersed or suspended throughout the solvent. Unfiltered particles. Ex. Liquid emulsion.
What is the Tyndall effect? Light is scattered by colloidal particles in a transparent medium. Ex. Headlights in fog.
How to determine whether a solution is an electrolyte or non-electrolyte? That depends on whether they create ions or molecules in a solution.
How to figure if a solution is an electrolyte? Ionic compounds, and forms ions.
How to figure if a solution is a non-electrolyte? Molecular compounds, and forms molecules.
What is an exception? Highly polar molecular compounds can be electrolytes.
What are some factors affecting the rate of dissolution? Particle size(Crushing a solid solute increase the rate of dissolving, Agitating or stirring, and Heating a solvent
Describe Particle size. Crushing a solid solute increases the rate of dissolution.
Describe Agitating or Stirring. It increases the rate of dissolving, and there is much more contact between solute particles and solvent.
Describe Heating a Solvent. Many substances dissolve quickly in warm water. At higher temperatures, collisions are more frequent at higher energy(More Kinetic Energy)
What does the amount of solute dissolved in a given amount depend on? Nature of solute, nature of solvent, and temperature.
What does a saturated solution contain? Max amount of solute for a given amount of solvent at a given temperature. Also, a state of dynamic equilibrium.
What does an unsaturated solution contain? Less than max amount of solute possible.
How about a supersaturated solution? More solute than theoretically possible.
How does this happen? Warm solution cools slowly, and no dynamic equilibrium exists as there is no undissolved solid. Crystallization can be started by adding a seed crystal.
What is the Basic Rule of Solute-Solvent Interactions? Like dissolves like(Polarity is key)
What happens in Solute-Solvent interactions? Polar substances(ionic compound) will dissolve in polar solvent. Water is polar and therefore a good solvent for ionic compounds. Non polar substances are not soluble in water, but are soluble in gasoline, a non polar solvent.
What are some characteristics in Liquid-Liquid Interactions? Liquids may or may not dissolve in one another.
What is Miscible? Liquids dissolve in each other(H2O and Alcohol)
What is immiscible? Liquids do NOT dissolve in each other(H2O and oil)
Created by: pedro5