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Chem. exam 3

Chemistry CH. 6&7

The particles of a ? have fixed positions and exhibit motions of vibration. Solid
The particles of a ? are free to move within the confines of itself. Liquids
The particles are far apart and move randomly and rapidly Gas
The temperature at which a solid becomes a liquid. Melting Point
The process of a liquid becoming a gas. Vaporization
The temperature at which the particles of a liquid escape and become a gas. Boiling Point
The process by which a gas becomes a liquid. Condensation
The process by which a liquid becomes a solid. Freezing
When a solid changes directly from the solid to the gaseous state. Sublimation
the strongest of forces that hold matter in the condensed states Ionic bonds
Occur between any two polar molecules Dipolar forces
When a hydrogen atom is covalently bonded to a highly electronegative atom like nitrogen, oxygen, or fluorine (N,O,F), it can exhibit an additional polar attraction. This attraction is called ? Hydrogen bonds
Nonpolar molecules exhibit a dynamic induced dipole. Dispersion forces
The strength of this force increases with molecular weight and is known as dispersion forces or London dispersion forces
An intimate, homogeneous mixture of two or more substances. Solution
A substance that is dispersed in a solution. Solute
A substance doing the dissolving, usually present in greatest quantity. Solvent
Solutions form most readily when both the solute and solvent have similar intermolecular forces. "Like dissolves like"
dissolve in water through ion-dipole interactions. Ionic substances
At constant temperature, the volume of a gas is inversely proportional to its pressure. Boyle's law
At constant pressure, the volume of a gas is directly proportional to its absolute temperature. Charles' Law
At fixed temperature and pressure, the volume of a gas is directly proportional to the amount of gas. Avogadro's law
Taste sour. Turn litmus red. React with active metals to release hydrogen gas. React with bases to form water and a salt. Acid
Taste bitter. Turn litmus blue. Feel slippery. React with acids to form water and a salt. Bases
: A molecular substance that ionizes in aqueous solution to form hydrogen ions (H+). Acid
A substance that produces hydroxide ions (OH-) in aqueous solution. Base
When an acid reacts with a base, the properties of each are neutralized and the products are water and a salt. Neutralization
H+ ions do not exist in water solution. Protons react with water to form hydronium ions (H3O+). H+ + H2O → H3O+ The Arrhenius theory does not explain the basicity of ammonia and similar compounds. It only applies to reactions in aqueous solution. Limitations of the Arrhenius theory
means without water Anhydride
are basic anhydrides Metal oxides
ionize completely in water solution. Strong acids & bases
only partially ionize in water solution. Weak acids & bases
is a means of expressing the acidity or basicity of a solution. pH
means “power” of hydrogen. pH
are compounds or ions that differ by one proton (H+). Conjugate acid-base pairs
contain a weak acid and its conjugate base. Such solutions are capable of maintaining a nearly constant pH when small amounts of acid or base are added. Buffer solutions
is when the stomach secretes too much acid. Antacids are often taken to neutralize excess acid and reduce the symptoms Hyperacidity
Excessive use of antacids can lead to an increase in the pH of blood, a condition known as Alkalosis
is the leading chemical substance produced in the U.S. It is used to manufacture fertilizers and industrial chemicals. It is the acid of automotive batteries. Production is 40 billion kg/year. Sulfuric acid
has a number of uses. It is used as a rust remover, and it removes lime from mortar and household plumbing fixtures. It can be purchased from hardware stores as muriatic acid. Annual U.S. production is 4 billion kg. Hydrochloric acid
is produced by heating limestone (CaCO3). Lime (CaO)
also known as lye, can be purchased for home use as oven cleaner or drain cleaners. It is used commercially to make soap. Annual U.S. production is 9 billion kg. Sodium hydroxide
is produced for use as fertilizer and in household cleaning products. Production is about 11 billion kg/year. Ammonia
Created by: Taylor Boyleston



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