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P1 Revision

Physics P1 Revision (OCR 21st Century)

QuestionAnswer
What do planets reflect? Sunlight.
What do planets orbit? The Sun.
What does the solar system consist of? A star and lots of stuff orbiting it.
How many planets are there orbiting the sun? 8
What are ellipses? Almost circular paths.
What are the inner planets? Planets closest to the sun – Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars.
What comes after the inner planets? The asteroid belt.
What are the outer planets? Planets furthest away – Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune.
Name three other things that orbit the sun? Dwarf planets, comets and dust.
What sometimes orbit around planets? Moons.
True or False? The sun’s diameter is over 100 times bigger than the earth’s. True
True or False? Stars are small, cold and very near. False – Stars are large, hot and very far away. (Apart from the sun)
What do stars give out lots of? Light.
Roughly how old is the solar system? 5 Thousand Million Years Old.
Over how long was the solar system formed? A very long period of time.
What was the solar system formed from? Big Clouds of Dust and Gas.
How is a protostar formed? The clouds started getting squeezed slightly, when the particles moved closer to each other, gravity pulled everything closer until the cloud collapsed in on itself.
What is fusion? When hydrogen nuclei join together to make helium.
What does fusion give off? Massive amounts of heat and light.
Where does stars energy come from? The fusion of hydrogen nuclei.
Around the sun material from the clouds clumped together to form planets. What did this material consist of? Hydrogen, Helium and heavier elements.
What are the oldest rocks on the earth? Meteorites.
What are asteroids and comets made of? Stuff left over from the formation of the solar system.
What are asteroids? Smallish lumps of rubble and rocks.
What are comets? Balls of rock, dust and ice.
How do they orbit the sun? In very elongated ellipses.
Why do comets leave a bright tail through the sky near the sun? As they get closer to the sun the ice melts, leaving a trail of gas/debris which can be millions of kilometers long.
True or False? Our sun is one of thousands of stars which form the milky way. False – It is one of thousands of millions (or 1 in 10¹¹)
How many times greater is the distance between neighboring stars in relation to the distance between planets in the solar system? Millions of times greater.
Roughly how many galaxies are there estimated to be in the universe? A thousand million galaxies.
What can interstellar distances in space be measure using? Light Years or parsec
What is the speed of light? 300,000 Km per second
What are intergalactic distances measured in? Mpc
What is a Light year? The distance that light travels through a vacuum in one year.
True or False? The diameter of the milky way is 500 billion times the diameter of the sun. False – 600 Billion
True or False? The milky way and its nearest galaxy are 600,000 times further apart than the sun and its nearest star. True
Put the following in order of size starting with the smallest. Diameter of sun, solar system, earth’s orbit and the earth. Diameter of earth, sun, earth’s orbit, solar system.
Do the same for these. Distance from... Milky way to nearest galaxy, Sun to nearest star and Diameter of Milky way. Distance from sun to nearest star, Diameter of milky way, Distance from the milky way to the nearest galaxy.
How old is the earth? 5000 million years old
How old is the sun? 5000 million years old
How old is the universe? 14,000 million years old
What is the colour that a star appears, a good guide to? Its surface temperature
What can study to find out about stars? The Electromagnetic radiation that it emits.
How can you work out how far away a star is? Parallax or its brightness.
What is parallax? When something appears to move when you look at it from different places.
How does parallax work? Scientists take pictures of a star 6 months apart. The distance a star has “apparently” moved shows you the distance.
How does measuring stars brightness tell you how far away it is? Scientist know how much radiation certain stars emit and by examining them from earth they can see how far away they are.
When trying to detect light from outer space why can the atmosphere be a pain? It absorbs quite a bit of the light (EM Spectrum) before it can reach us.
What is light pollution? Light thrown upwards from things like streetlamps etc.
What problems can light pollution create? Make it hard to see dim objects in the sky form earth.
What did scientists put in space so that they would not be affected by these problems? The Hubble Space Telescope
Why do we see stars and galaxies as they were in the past? Because they are so far away the time it takes their radiation and lights to reach us means that time has passed, meaning we see them in the past.
When we look at the sun, we see it as it was... 8 minutes ago
If somebody say that they know the distance to a star to the nearest kilometre why must they be lying? Because to calculate the distance to a star you have to make certain assumptions this adds a degree of uncertainty.
What is red shift? When a distant galaxy is moving away from us the wavelength of light changes, it becomes redder.
What, in space, is moving away from us? Distant Galaxies
By seeing how much light has been red-shifted what can you work out? The greater the red shift the faster it’s moving away.
The more distant the galaxy the slower/faster it moves away from us. Faster
What does this provide evidence for? That the universe is expanding.
When we look at the north star in what time do we see it? As it was 430 years ago. (Shakespearean Times)
What does red shift provide evidence for? That the universe is expanding.
True or False? Galaxies are moving apart from a single point. True
What do scientists think started to make galaxies move? An explosion better known as the big bang.
Briefly explain the big bang. All the matter and energy in the universe was compressed into a very small space. Then it exploded and started expanding, the expansion is still going on.
How can the age of the universe be estimated? By measuring the current rate of expansion.
How long ago was the big bang? Scientist believe that it wasc14 thousand million years ago.
Why is it difficult to estimate when the big bang was? Because the expansion has slowed down since the big bang.
What does the universe's fate depend on? How fast it is expanding and the total mass there is in it.
True or False? It is easy to measure large distances in the universe. False it is very hard to measure large distances in the universe.
Why is it hard to tell how much mass there is in the universe? Because most of it appears to be invisible.We can only detect dark matter by the way it affects movement of the things we can see.
Why does the amount of dark matter in the universe matter so much? It will dictate the future of the universe.
Why does how much mass there is affect the future of the universe? Gravity attracts all the mass everywhere together. The more mass there is the greater the pull of gravity and the greater slowing down of the universe.
What is the one of the fates of the universe? If there is lots of mass it could slow down the expansion of the universe altogether and then the universe would begin contracting , this would end in a big crunch.
What is the other fate of the universe? There is not enough mass to stop the universe expanding and the universe will continue to spread out for eternity.
True or False. The earth is a steady, unchanging place. False.
What provides a record of changes in the earth? The rocks
Give an example of a place where rocks have given us clues about the history of the earth. The grand Canyon, the Colorado river eroded the rock leaving a slash through the middle of Arizona.
Give an example of erosion. When cliffs are worn away by the sea.
How do fossils provide evidence that rock is constantly forming? The animals couldn't have dug themselves into the rock, it had to form on top of their dead bodies.
What can be estimated from the age of rocks? The age of the earth.
What is the age of the earth according to the oldest rocks? 4 thousand million years old
What is the rock cycle? The constant changing and recycling of rocks.
First Stage of Rock Cycle Particles eroded from existing rock(e.g. by water flowing over them)get washed into the sea and settle as sediment. Over time these sediments get crushed together to form sedimentary rocks.
Second Stage of Rock Cycle Sedimentary rock is either pushed to the surface or it can descend into the heat and pressure inside the earth. If they descend the structure of the rock can change completely as it gets heated and crushed.
What happens if any rocks in the rock cycle are pushed up to reach the earth's surface? The rock cycle starts again.
True or False? The rock cycle needs very weak force to push rock up or down. False. The rock cycle needs very strong force to push rock up or down.
What theory did people think explained the reason similar fossils and plants had been found on different sides of the ocean? Land Bridges
Why did people think 'Land Bridges' no longer existed? They had sunk or been covered by water as the earth cooled.
What was the huge continent called? Pangea
What evidence was there to back up his hypothesis? Matching plant and Animal Fossils
What other evidence is there to support Wegner's theory? Matching animal and plant fossils. Matching rock formations. The coastlines match up.
Why was Wegner's theory not accepted at first? Couldn't explain... Mountain Building How the continents drifted He was a meteorologist
What scientific discovery made Wegner's theory common belief? Sea Floor Spreading
What is Sea Floor Spreading? Where the continents meet magma rises up and solidifies and forms symmetrical mountains on either side of the gap. It shows that the sea floor is spreading.
By how much does the sea floor spread every year? A couple of centimeters
Why was the magnetic orientation of the rock important? They aligned themselves with the earth's magnetic field which changes every half a million years. As there were different magnetic alignments it showed that new sea floor was being made and that the continents were moving apart.
How thick is the crust of the earth? 20km Thick
What are the two types of crust? Continental and Oceanic Crust
What is below the crust? The mantle
What are the properties of the mantle? It has all the properties of a solid but it can flow very slowly.
What causes the mantle to flow? Heat from the core and radioactive decay in the mantle create convection currents which make the mantle flow.
Is the inner core liquid or solid? Solid
Is the outer core liquid or solid? Liquid
What do scientists think that the core is mainly made up of? Iron and Nickel
What are tectonic plates? Large pieces of the crust which float on the mantle.
What can cause an earthquake? If plates move very suddenly into one another.
Where do earthquakes more commonly happen? At the edges of tectonic plates.
What often form at the boundaries between plates? Mountain ranges and volcanoes.
What do earthquakes produce? Wave motions/Seismic waves (Shock waves)
What do we record seismic waves on? A seismograph
What are the two types of seismic waves that travel through the earth? S-Waves and P-Waves
Which is faster S-Waves or P-Waves? P-Waves
Which Wave travels through Solids and Liquids? P-Waves
Which Wave travels through Solids? S-Wave
Which waves are Longitudinal? P-Waves
Which waves are transverse? S-Waves
Why does the speed of P-Waves change as they reach a boundary between different layers of the earth? Because the density changes and they are refracted
What happens to seismic waves when they reach a boundary between different layers of the earth? Some of the waves are reflected and refracted.
Why do the seismic waves end up having a curved path? Because the refraction happens slowly as the density changes, but when there is a sudden change in properties the path has a kink.
About what did Alfred Wegner Hypothesize? That Africa and South America had previously been one continent that had split.
Created by: LizzySpeddings