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Anti-Infective Agent

Anit-Infective Agents Pharmacology

QuestionAnswer
ANTIBIOTICS OR ANTIBACTERIALS Medicines created to fight bacterial infections
Salvarsan "The Magic Bullet" - The organic arsenic compound used to treat syphilis in 1909
SULFONAMIDES Developed from the compound found in red dye in Germany in the 1930's
Sulfanilamide Trade Name: Prontosil (antibiotic)
Sulfamethoxazole Trade Name: Septra and Bactrim (antibiotic)
PENICILLINS First antibiotic developed in the U.S. in the 1940's
Penicillin G Trade Name: Bicillin (injectible) Penicillin V (oral) Ampicillin (oral) Amoxicillin (oral)
Methicillin A synthetic penicillinase-resistant drug
Ticarcillin The new agent that has an extended spectrum of action for the penicillin family
AMINOGLYCOSIDES Prototype for this class is Streptomycin
Streptomycin First aminoglycoside discovered
Neomycin Used in many antibiotic ointments (too toxic for internal use)
Gentamicin Used systemically to treat nasty infections such as gram-negative sepsis. *This drug family was used to brin TB under control in 1946-47
CEPHALOSPORINS Beta Lactam Drugs
Cephalexin Trade Name: Keflex (a first generation drug)
Cefaclor Trade Name: Ceclor (a second generation drug)
Ceftriaxone Trade Name: Rocephin (a third generation drug) which is used to treat STI's, and other bacterial infections. It is also given with Lidocane to take away pain of a shot
CARBAPENEMS & MONOBACTAMS Beta Lactam Drugs used to treat serious infections resistant to other antibiotics. They are bacterial cell wall inhibitors with no oral forms available. Used to treat: Streptococci Neisseria, Haemophilous, bacteria, & Methicillin-sensitive Staphylococci
Aztreonoam Trade Name: Azactam (best known drug for this group)
Tetracycline First broad spectrum antibiotic
Tretracycline Prototype of Tetracycline but due to resistance is relegated to the position of treating acne
Minocycline Trade Name: Minocin (prescribed to treat the acne vugaris that afflicts young adults and rosacea in adults)
Doxycycline Trade Name: Vibramycin (prescribed to treat the acne vugaris that afflicts young adults and rosacea in adults)
Fluoroquinolones Part of quinolone family of antibiotics
Ciprofloxacin Trade Name: Cirpo (a broad spectrum antibiotic to treat ear infections, pneumonia, & UTI's)
Levofloxacin Trade Name: Levaquin (is heir to Cipro and came to market in the 1990's) SIDE EFFECT: Rupture of tendons especially the Achilles tendon
MACROLIDES Broad spectrum drugs that can be used by people that are allergic to penicillin. They are "erythromycin-like" antibiotic that interferes with bacterial protein synthesis
Azithromycin Trade Name: Zithromax (aka Z-pack treatment with only 3 pill dose; broader spectrum; chemically more stable and better tolerated)
Clarithromycin Trade Name: Biaxin (broader spectrum; chemically more stable and better tolerated)
Vancomycin Trade Name: Vancocin (a glycopeptide drug used to treat MRSA)
Clindamycin Trade Name: Cleocin (used topically treat acne and skin infection preparations; alternative for those allergic to penicillin)
Metronidazole Terrible-tasting, terrible drug; hard on stomach, causing diarrhea, etc.; used for anaerobic infections and certain infections of GI tract/vaginal tract (Giardia)
Septra or Bactrim Generic Name: Trimethoprim + Sulfamethoxazole *Combination Antibiotic (used to treat uncomplicated UTI's)
Augmentin Generic Name: Amoxicillin + Clavulanate *Combination Antibiotic (used in treating infections produced by penicillinase-producing bacteria)
ANTIVIRALS Drugs used to treat viruses and were first developed in the 1950's as treatment for herpes virus infections in the eye
HIV/AIDS DRUGS Introduced in 1995, Protease Inhibitors (PIs) and most potent class of HIV antiviral drugs
HAART Therapy Combinations or "cocktails" of at least 3 drugs belonging to at least 2 classes: 1. 2 NARTIs plus either 2. a protease inhibitor, or 3. a NNRTI
NARTI or "Nuke" Stands for: Nucleoside Analogue Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor *AZT was the first anti-AIDS drug, the only one in the early 1990's
NNRTI or "Non-Nuke" Nonnucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor and is used in treating the HIV infection
PI Protease Inhibitor and is the 3rd drug in the arsenal to treat HIV
Atripla Combination drug used in the treating of the HIV/AIDs with one pill
DRUGS FOR WASTING SYNDROME Aka: Cachexia - is seen in many patients with severe, chronic illnesses (such as rheumatiod arthritis, cancer, and AIDS)
Dronabinol Trade Name: Marinol ("THC" drug that some patients use instead of the medicinal marijuana) *Synthetic cannabinoid in form of a pill
Megastrol Trade Name: Megace (A progesterone-like hormone that is used to treat muscle wasting and help with weight gain)
DHT Trade Name: Dihydrotestosterone (male sex hormone that is used to treat muscle wasting and aid with weight gain)
HERPES VIRUS DRUGS (besides the drug to treat HIV) Antivirals available to help deal with HIV, herpes viruses, the hepatitis B & C viruses and influenza A & B)
Acyclovir Trade Name: Zovirax (prototype, was the first to treat herpes viruses such as cold sore approved in 1982, later used to treat genital herpes)
Valacyclovir Trade Name: Valtrex (drug to treat Herpes Virus)
INFLUENZA DRUGS Viral resistance developed to the original influenza drug amantadine, and replace by a group of drugs called neuraminidase inhibitors; 2008-2009 flu season all tested resistant to the adamantanes)
Amantadine Trade Name: Symmetrel (developed in 1960 and was the first developed from tbe adamantine group and not used much any more)
Oseltamivir Trade Name: Tamiflu (newer neuraminidase inhibitors used to treat documented flu)
Zanamivir Trade Name: Relenza(newer neuraminidase inhibitors used to treat documented flu)
TIV Trivalent influenza vaccine *Vaccine against the flu
OTHER ANTIVIRALS
Ribavirin Drug to treat RSV in babies, hemorrhagic fevers and Hantavirus infections (approved in 1998, as part of a treatment along with a group of natural human hormone chemicals called "interferons")
Gardasil Vaccine Vaccine developed to prevent the development of the STD human papilloma virus that can cause cervical cancer in women
ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS
Nystatin Earliest antifungal
Clotrimazole and Miconazole Azole drgs that are used to treat superficial infections such as thrush, vaginal yeast infections and ringworm
Amphotericin B Aka: "Amphiterrible" (first anti fungal drug for treating systemic fungal infections
Fluconazole Trade Name: Diflucan (tolerated antifungal)
Terbinafine Trade Name: Lamisil (well tolerated systemic antifungal)
Created by: snuzyque