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Chem Exam 3rd 9wks

Nucleur charge the positive charge on the nucleus
electron shielding results from inner electronsthat reduce the pull of the nucleus on outer electrons
atomic radii half the distance between the nuclei of identical atoms that are bonded together
ions an atom or group of bonded atoms that has a positive or negative charge
anion a negative ion
cation positive ion
ionization any process that results in the formation of ions
ionization energy the energy required to remove an electron from an electron from a neutral atom of an element
electron affinity the energy change that occurs as an electron is added to a neutral atom
electronegativity a measure of the ability of an atom in a chemical compound to attract electrons
valence electrons the electrons to be lost, gained, or shared in the formation of chemical compounds
chemical bond a mutual electrical attraction between the nuclei and valence electrons of different atoms tat binds the atoms together
ionic bonding chemical bonding that results from the electrical attraction between large numbers of anions and cations
covalent bond results from the sharing of elctron pairs between 2 atoms
chemical compounds tend to form so that each atom, by gaining,losing or sharing electrons has an octet or 8 e's in its highest enrgy level octet rule
nonpolar bonds where the electrons are shared equally by the bonded atoms resulting in a balanced distribution of electrical charge
polar covalent bond with an uneven distribution of electrical charges bc the bonded atoms have an unequal attraction for the shared electrons
molecule a neutral group of atoms held together by covalent bonds
diatomic molecule molecules containing 2 atoms
chemical formula indicates the relative numbers of atoms of each kind of element in a chemical compound by using atomic symbols and subscripts
molecular formula show the types and numbers of atoms combined ina single molecule of a molecular compound
unshared pair pair of electrons that is not involved in abonding and that belongs to only one of the atoms
structural formula formula indicates the kind, number, arrangement, and bonds but not the unshared pairs of electrons of the aotms in a molecule
formula units the simplest collection of atoms from which an ionic compound's formula can be established
ionic compound networks of positive and negative ions mutually attracted
crystal lattice the ordelry arrangement of ions in anionic compound
metallic bond the attraction betwen the metal's atoms and the surrounding sea of electrons
sea of electrons some nonesent about how electrons flow
conversion factor ratio or fraction in which the numerator is equivalent to the denominator so that it represnts
oxidation number the number of electrons lost, gained or shared by an atom creating a positive or negative charge
binary compound compound made of only 2 types of atoms
nonbinary comound compound made of more than 2 types of atoms and that includes at least 1 polyatomic ion
empirical formula indicates the smallest whole number ratio of the different atoms in the compound
formula mas for any molcule, formula unit, or ion, the formula mass is the sum of the atomic masses of all the atoms present in its formula
percentage composition the percentage by mass of each element in a compound
6.022x10^-23 avagadro's number
molar mass the mass of one mole of a pure substance
mol SI unite for the amount of substance
Created by: lovecamille018