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Physics 10

BC Science 10 Physics vocabulary

What is radioactivity? The release of high energy particles and rays of energy from a substance as a result of changes in the nuclei of it's atoms
What is natural background radiation? The stream of high energy fast moving particles or waves that is found in our environment.
What is radiation? High energy rays and particles emitted by radioactive sources.
What is light? One form of radiation that is visible to humans.
What are isotopes? Different atoms of a particular element that have the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons.
What is mass number? An integer that represents the sum of an atoms protons and neutrons.
displacement straight line distance and direction from one point to another - change in position
distance Without direction, describes the length of a path between two points or locations
position vector (with direction) that describes a point relative to a reference point.
position-time graph A graph where you plot time on horizontal axis and position on vertical axis
scalars quantities that describe magnitude but do not include direction
slope (on a graph) refers to whether a line is horizontal (zero slope) or goes up (positive slope) goes down (negative slope) at an angle.
uniform motion travelling in equal displacement in equal time intervals (neither speeding up, slowing down, nor changing direction)
vectors quantities that have both magnitude and a direction
average velocity the rate of change in position for a time interval
speed the distance an object travels during a given time interval divided by the time interval
velocity the displacement of an object during a time interval divided by the time interval
acceleration the rate at which an object changes it's velocity
change in velocity change that occurs when the speed of an object changes, or it's direction of motion changes, or both; calculated by subtracting initial velocity from final velocity
deceleration Acceleration that is opposite to the direction of motion. A decrease in the speed of the object.
acceleration due to gravity Acceleration due to gravity in the absense of air resistance; the value of acceleration due to gravity near the surface of the earth is approx. 9.8 m/s squared downward.
air resistance A friction like force that opposed the motion of objects that move through the air.
average acceleration average rate at which on object changes its velocity; shown by the slope of a velocity time graph
constant acceleration velocity changing at a constant rate
gravity Attractive force between two or more masses; causes objects to be pulled toward the center of earth
velocity-time graph time on x-axis and velocity on y-axis
alpha particle Heavy positively charged atomic particle (same combination of particles as the nucleus of a Helium atom)
beta particle a high speed electron emitted by a radioactive nucleus in beta-decay
gamma radiation rays of high energy, short wave-length radiation emitted from the nuclei of atoms
radioactive decay process in which the nuclei of radioactive parent isotopes emit alpha, beta, or gamma raditation to form decay products
daughter isotope the stable product of radioactive decay
decay curve a curved line on a graph that shows the rate at which radioisotopes decay
half-life Time required for half of the nuclei in a sample of a radioactive isotope to decay
parent isotope the isotope that undergoes radioactive decay
radiocarbon dating determining the age of an object by measuring the amount of carbon-14 remaining in it
chain reaction an ongoing process in which fission reaction initiates the next reaction
fission A nuclear reaction in which a large nucleus breaks apart - creates energy
fusion a process in which two low mass nuclei join together to make a more massive nucleus
nuclear equation A set of symbols that indicates changes in the nuclei of atoms during a nuclear reaction
nuclear reaction the process in which an atoms nucleus changes by gaining or releasing particles or energy
Created by: keiraogle

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