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A & P chapter 2


matter any thing that has space and mass
mass the amount of matter
weight the amount of gravitational pull
elements substances with unique chemical properties
atoms form elements,
atomic number the number of protons
Ion an atom that takes or gives up an electron (an atom with a charge)
mass number the number of protons plus the number of neutrons
isotopes variations of an element which have slightly different numbers of neutrons
radioactive isotopes unstable trying to revert back to stable form used in clinical settings
atomic weight is howeve many grams it takes to make a mole
cation when a atom loses an electron, becomming positively charged
anion When a atom gains and electron and becoms negetively charged
types of chemical bonds ionic, covalent, poloar covalent, hdyrogen
the electrons in the outermost shell the chemical behavior is determined by the
ionic bond not strong, easily dissolved in water, an electron is TRANSFERRED from one atom to another
Covalent bond the strongest chemical bond, not as soluble in water as ionic, atoms share electrons
polar covalent bonds electrons are shared unequally
Hydrogen bonding involve hydrogen and either oxygen or nitrogen, weak bond.
solubility the ability of one substance to dissolve into another
dissociation dissolving
electrolytes individual cation and anions that have been dissolved ( because they carry a charge) that can carry a current
Synthesis A+B=AB
Anabolic building reaction
Decomposition reaction AB=A+B
Catabolic breacking down into fragments
synthsis dehydration Glucose+glucose=maltose+h2o...move two molecules together and remove water
decomposition hydrolysis maltose+h2o=glucose and glucose...break a molecule apart by adding water
exchange reactions AB+CD=AC+BD
Oxidation/ reduction reactions transfer of electrons between molecules.
oxidation loss of electrons
reduction gain of electrons
reversible reactions a+BC<=>ABC<=>AB+C
eneergy capacity to do work (move matter)
potential energy stored energy in an object
kinetic energy actually doing work
chemical energy found in bonds of chemicals ( forming them requires energy, and breaking the bond releases energy)
exergonic reaction when the product have a lower chemical energy than the reactant (energy is released)
Endergonic reaction when the product has higher chemical energy than the reactants ( requires energy to form)
Adenosine triphosphate the energy molecule of a human
the rate of chemical reactions depens on activation energy, catalyst, concentration of the reactants, and temperature
Activation energy the min energy required to start a chemical reaction
catalysts increases the rate of a reaction by decreasing the activation energy required to start.
concentration of the reactants the more reactants the more products there are
temperature increased temperature can cause an increased rate of a reaction
inorganic chemistry small and do not contain carbon, except for co and co2
water the most important inorganic molecule, hish specific heat, reduces friction, universal solvant, great mixing medium.
solution contains totally dissolved particles
suspension contain undissolved particles that will settle out
colloids contains undissolved particles that will not settle out
solute the particles being dissolved
solvent the medium that particles are being dissolved into
concentration the amout of solute in a solution
percentages the weight in grams per 100 mls of solution
osmoles number of total particles in a solutions. one mole of a substnace dissolved into 1 kg of h20 is an osmole.
acid gives up a proton H+ (proton donor)
base a molecule that accepts a H+ ( proton reciever)
PH scale the measure of how many H+ there aer in a solution
more H+ the more acidic a soulution it is (1 being most acidic)
more OH- than H+ the more alkaline the solution is
a humans ph 7.35-7.45
nutralizing adding a base to an acid makes water and salt
salt a molecule that contains a cation other than H+ and an anion
buffers weak acids and bases that can accept H+ if becomes too acidic, and can dontate them if it becomes too alkaline
Created by: masantha4