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Revision for Elements from the Sea module

What is the ionic equation for the reaction below? NaOH(aq) + HCl(aq) --> NaCl(aq) + H2O(l) H+(aq) + OH-(aq) --> H2O(l)
What is the ionic equation for the reaction below? Fe(NO3)3(aq) + 3KOH(aq) --> Fe(OH)3(s) + 3KNO3(aq) Fe3+(aq) + 3OH-(aq) --> Fe(OH)3(s)
Ionic solids have high melting points because there is a large number of electrostatic interactions between the positive and negative ions that require lots of energy to break
Ionic liquids and solutions conduct electricity because the free ions act as charge carriers
The sodium chloride lattice is alternating Na+ and Cl- ions in layers Na+ Cl- Na+ Cl- Na+ Cl- Na+ Cl- Na+
State and explain the general trend in ionisation energy from Na to Ar Increasing due to increasing nuclear charge and all outer electrons are in the same energy level
Explain why there is a decrease in ionisation energy between Mg and Al The outermost electron in Al is in the 3p subshell, which is further from the nucleus and shielded by the 3s subshell
Explain why there is a decrease in ionisation energy between P and S Increase in repulsion due to the outermost electron in sulphur being in a filled p-orbital when the outermost electron in phosphorus is not
The first ionisation enthalpy of magnesium is Mg(g) --> Mg+(g) + e-
The second ionisation enthalpy of phosphorus is P+(g) -->P^2+(g) + e-
The electronic configuration of calcium is 1s2, 2s2, 2p6, 3s2, 3p6, 4s2
The electronic configuration of iron is 1s2, 2s2, 2p6, 3s2, 3p6, 4s2, 3d6
The electronic configuration of copper is 1s2, 2s2, 2p6, 3s2, 3p6, 4s1, 3d10
For solutions, the equation for moles is Moles = concentration * volume in dm3
250cm3 of 0.5mol dm3 HCl contains how many moles of HCl? Moles = 0.5 * 0.25 = 0.125 moles
The oxidising power of halogens increases as you go down the group
The reaction of chlorine with bromide ions is shown as 1/2Cl2 + Br- --> 1/2Br2 + Cl-
When iodine is added to a solution containing chloride ions, what happens? Nothing, because iodine is less oxidising than chlorine
When chlorine is added to a solution containing iodide ions what happens? The solution turns red/brown due to iodine
The melting point of halides increase down the group because the number of electrons increases, which increases the strength of van-der-waals forces
Chlorine can be manufactured by electrolysing what raw material? Sea water (or brine)
Bromine is manufactured by treating sea water with chlorine gas. Why? The chlorine displaces bromide ions in the sea water
The hazards of manufacturing chlorine gas include It is toxic and a gas, so difficult to transport
What colour precipitate is formed when chloride ions are mixed with silver nitrate White precipitate
How can the cream precipitate of silver bromide and the yellow precipitate of silver iodide be distinguished? Add concentrated ammonia, which dissolves silver bromide but not silver iodide
Industrial uses of chlorine include Bleach, water treatment and plastics (PVC)
Industrial uses of bromine include Medicines, pesticides and flame retardents
Halogenoalkanes are alkanes with one or more hydrogens replaced with a halogen atom
Are halogenoalkanes polar or non-polar? Non-polar
Name the mechanism for the reaction between chlorobutane and sodium hydroxide nucleophilic substitution
What is represented by a curly arrow in a reaction mechanism? The movement of a pair of electrons
What type of bond fission is involved in the leaving of the halogen atom? Heterolytic fission
From what homologous series is the product of the reaction between bromobutane and ammonia? Amines
State the trend in rate of hydrolysis for fluoro-, chloro-, bromo- and iodoalkanes The rate increases as you descend the group
What is a nucleophile? A species that can donate a lone pair of electrons
Created by: dbwmcauley