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# CH 5 Chem Vocab

### CH 5 Chemistry Vocab

Question | Answer |
---|---|

atomic orbital | a mathematical expression describing the probability of finding an electron at various locations; usually represented by the region of space around the nucleus where there is a high probability of finding an electron |

photon | a quantam of light, a discrete bundle of electromagnetic energy that interacts with matter similarly to particles |

pauli exclusion principle | an atomic orbital may describe at most two electrons, each with opposite spin direction |

hund's rule | electrons occupy orbitals of the same energy in a way that makes the number of electrons with the same spin direction as large as possible |

electromagnetic radiation | energy waves that travel in a vacuum at a speed of 2.998 X 10^8 m/s; includes radio waves, microwaves, infrared waves, visible light, ultravioleet waves, X-rays, and gamma rays |

heisenberg uncertainty principle | it is impossible to know exactly both the velocity and the position of a particle at the same time |

quantam | the amount of energy needed to move an electron from one energy level to another |

electron configurations | the arrangement of electrons of an atom in its ground state into various orbitals around the nuclei of atoms |

wavelength | the distance between adjacent crests of a wave |

amplitude | the height of a wave's crest |

ground state | the lowest possible energy of an atom described by quantam mechanics |

quantam mechanical model | the modern description, primarily mathematical, of the behavior of electrons in atoms |

frequency | the number of wave cycles that pass a given point per unit of time |

atomic emission spectrum | the pattern formed when light passes through a prism or diffraction grating to separate it into the different frequencies of light it contains |

aufbau principle | the rule that electrons occupy the orbitals of lowest energy first |

energy levels | the specific energies an electron in an atom or other system can have |

hertz | the unit of frequency, equal to one cycle per second |

spectrum | wavelengths of visible light that are separated when a beam of light passes through a prism; range of wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation |