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3rd quarter 9 week exam study cards ch 10,11,12

The ‘bends’ when nitrogen bubbles form in the blood
tobacco plant with a firefly gene genetic engineering
how DNA is wrapped around proteins
what enzymes do lower activation energy
where DNA is found most all living things
deletion specific type of mutation when one base is missing
addition specific type of mutation when there is one additional base
solubility measurement of how much of one substance can dissolve into another
examples of suspensions mud, quicksand, sewer water
examples of colloids milk, fog, smoke
examples of solutions salt water, iron, air
solvent substance making up the majority of a solution
solute substance that can disappear from view when it dissolves into another substance
filtration only effective in mixtures called suspensions
particle size the main distinction between the 3 types of mixtures
unsaturated solution at room temperature that is still able to dissolve additional solute
saturated solution that has dissolved the exact maximum amount of solute possible
supersaturated solution that has possibly been heated, and has dissolved more solute than can be dissolved at room temperature
ionic compounds have s high melting point
valence electrons located furthest from nucleus, have highest energy
acid tastes sour
base tastes bitter
DNA shaped like a twisted ladder
synthesis reaction when 2 or more different substances come together to form a new substance
decomposition reaction when 1 substance breaks down (degrades) to 2 or more substances
combustion reaction must involve oxygen, usually can involve burning
single displacement reaction has a product produced when one reactant replaces a part of one of the other reactants
double replacement reaction when two 'two part' reactants switch ions with each other
substitution specific type of mutation when one base is replaced by a different base
mutation change in DNA caused by a random error or a mutagen
mutagen UV light, carcinogens (cause mutations)
Coefficients this needs to be placed in a chemical equation in order to balance them
subscripts a number to the lower right of a chemical symbol which indicates how many of that type of atom are in molecule
atomic stability having 8 valence electrons
polyatomic ion a stable group of connected atoms, which overall, together, has a charge
reason any 2 elements in same group on periodic table are similar they have the same number of valence electrons
the energy relationships in one water molecule two covalent bonds
molecular compound electrical conductivity it tends not to
bond defined as an energy relationship
zero the overall charge on ionic compounds made of ions, and connected by ionic bonds
usefulness of radioactive isotopes determine ages of fossils
catalyst is also known as this enzyme
subscript the 2 in the formula for water
law of conservation of mass a reason to balance a chemical equation
must occur in all chemical reactions making and or braking of chemical bonds
nucleotides individual subunit of DNA, made of a sugar, phosphate and a base
gene string of nucleotides that has information for making a trait (such as brown eyes)
three bases code for this one specific amino acid
endothermic reactions need to have an input of energy in order for the reaction to occur
exothermic reaction will have an output of energy as the reaction proceeds
chemical formula combination of element symbols and subscripts that show how atoms combine in a molecule (example C02)
mRNA a mirror image of DNA that moves / messengers info from the nucleus out to the cytoplasm to rendezvous with the ribosome
inhibitor capable of slowing down or stopping a chemical reaction
how the number of atoms at the beginning of a chemical reaction will compare with the number of atoms at the end of the reaction will be the same
evidence of reaction having occurred formation of precipitate, gas, or a color change
something most chemical reactions can do under the right conditions go in reverse
polar bonds electrons are not shared equally
yields what the arrow in a chemical equation means or is read as
each rung of the DNA ladder a pair of bases
chromosomes within the nucleus, these are the structures that strands of DNA are bundled into
one amino acid what one tRNA will bring to a ribosome; determined by what the three base code is in the mRNA
tRNA acts like a taxi carrying amino acids to the ribosome, also helps translate 'nucleotide language to proteins'
chromatin made of DNA and protein, when coiled tightly about itself is called a chromosome
progeria early aging disease caused by chance- having one incorrect nucleotide
Created by: schneiderw11