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Chem Ch #4

Main group elements Groups 1A-7A
Noble Gasses Group 8A
Valence Electrons Outermost electrons
1A Alkali Metals
2A Alkaline Earth Metals
7A Halogens
Nuclear Charge (z) Number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
Effective nuclear charge (Z eff) Magnitude of positive charge that is experienced by the electron in an atom.
Shielding Electrons being repelled by each other but attracted to the nucleus.
From left to right across a period, Z eff... increases steadily
Metallic Radius half the distance between the nuclei of two adjacent, identical metal atoms.
Covalent raduis Half the distance between two adjacent identical nuclei that are connected by a chemical bond.
From left to right across a period, atomic radius... decreases
From top to bottom in a group, atomic radius... increases
Ionization Energy (IE) Minimum energy required to remove an electron from an atom in the gas phase.
Ion Chemical species with a net charge.
When Z eff increases ionization energy... increases
From left to right across a period, ionization energy... increases
From top to bottom in a group, ionization energy... decreases
According to coulombs law, as distance increases effective charge... decreases
Chemical process A process in which the identity of the matter involved changes.
Electron affinity Energy released when an atom in the gas phase accepts an electron
From left to right across a period, electron affinity... increases
Metals are... Shiny, malleable, ductile, good conductors of heat and electricity, and low ionization energy.
Nonmetals are... Brittle, poor conductors of heat and electricity, high electron affinities, and vary in color.
Metalloids are... With properties intermediate of metals and nonmetals.
Metallic character the name given to the set of chemical properties associated with elements that are metals
Diagonal Relationship Similarities between pairs of elements in different periods and groups.
Ionic Radius The radius of an anion/cation
Created by: grijalvard