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Chem 110 Exam 2

Chemical Bonds & Chemical Aaccounting

Na+ ions and Cl- have opposite charges and attract each other. What is the resulting reaction? an ionic bond
Ionic compounds are held together by ionic bonds and exist in a? crystal
In reacting chemically, atoms tend to gain or lose or share electrons so as to have eight valence electrons. This is known as the Octet rule
?lose electrons to take on the electron structure of the previous noble gas. In doing so, they form positive ions (cations). Metals
?tend to gain electrons to take on the electron structure of the next noble gas. In doing so, they form negative ions (anions). Nonmetals
The charge of a cation from the representative elements is the same as the family number. Cation charge
The charge of an anion from the representative elements is equal to the family number – 8. Anions
Many nonmetallic elements react by ? rather than by gaining or losing electrons. Sharing electrons
When two atoms share a pair of electrons, a ? is formed. covalent bond
Atoms can share one, two, or three pairs of electrons, forming ?, ?, and ? bonds. single, double, triple
?compounds are named by using a prefix to denote the number of atoms. Binary Covalent
? is a measure of an atom’s attraction for the electrons in a bond. Electronegativity
When two atoms with differing electro-negativity form a bond, the bonding electrons are drawn closer to the atom with the higher electro-negativity. Such a bond exhibits a separation of charge and is called a Polar Covalent bond
? are groups of covalently bonded atoms with a charge. Polyatomic Ions
An atom or molecule with an unpaired electron is known as a ? Free radical
The theory predicts the shape of molecules and polyatomic ions based on repulsions of electron pairs on central atoms. Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR)
? dissolve in water through ion-dipole interactions. Ionic Substances
? represent the sentences in the language of chemistry. They are the means of communicating a chemical change using the symbols and formulas to represent the elements and compounds involved in a chemical reaction. Chemical Equations
? are the species present before the reaction. Reactants
?are the species present after the reaction: Products
?are numbers used to balance a chemical equation. Coefficients
: When all measurements are made at the same temperature and pressure, the volumes of gaseous reactants and products are in a small whole-number ratio. Law of Combined Volumes
: When measured at the same temperature and pressure, volumes of all gases contain the same number of molecules. Avogadro’s hypothesis
is defined as the number of atoms in a 12-g sample of carbon-12 and is: 6.02 x 1023 Avogadro's number
A ? is defined as the amount of a substance that contains 6.02 x 1023 particles. mole (mol)
? is the average mass of a formula unit relative to that of a carbon-12 atom Formula Mass
It is simply the sum of the ? for all atoms in a formula. atomic masses
If the formula represents a molecule, often the term ? is used. Molecular mass (molar mass)
?:One mole of any gas occupies a volume of 22.4 L at standard temperature and pressure (STP). Molar Volume of a gas
?is defined as 1 atmosphere (atm) of pressure and a temperature of 0 oC. STP
?involves the quantitative relationship between reactants and products in a balanced chemical equation. Stoichiometry
The ? of a balanced chemical equation represent ?. Coefficients. moles
The amount of solute in a given amount of solvent is defined as? Solution Concentration
A ? contains relative small amounts of solute in a given amount of solvent. dilute solution
A ? contains relatively large amounts of solute in a given amount of solvent. Concentrated Solution
? is defined as the moles of solute per liter of solution. Molarity (M)
Created by: Taylor Boyleston